Reliability of visual review of intracranial electroencephalogram in identifying the seizure onset zone: A systematic review and implications for the accuracy of automated methods

James Flanary, Sam Daly, Caitlin J Bakker, Alexander B. Herman, Michael C. Park, Robert McGovern, Thaddeus Walczak, Thomas Henry, Theoden I. Netoff, David P. Darrow

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Visual review of intracranial electroencephalography (iEEG) is often an essential component for defining the zone of resection for epilepsy surgery. Unsupervised approaches using machine and deep learning are being employed to identify seizure onset zones (SOZs). This prompts a more comprehensive understanding of the reliability of visual review as a reference standard. We sought to summarize existing evidence on the reliability of visual review of iEEG in defining the SOZ for patients undergoing surgical workup and understand its implications for algorithm accuracy for SOZ prediction. We performed a systematic literature review on the reliability of determining the SOZ by visual inspection of iEEG in accordance with best practices. Searches included MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science on May 8, 2022. We included studies with a quantitative reliability assessment within or between observers. Risk of bias assessment was performed with QUADAS-2. A model was developed to estimate the effect of Cohen kappa on the maximum possible accuracy for any algorithm detecting the SOZ. Two thousand three hundred thirty-eight articles were identified and evaluated, of which one met inclusion criteria. This study assessed reliability between two reviewers for 10 patients with temporal lobe epilepsy and found a kappa of.80. These limited data were used to model the maximum accuracy of automated methods. For a hypothetical algorithm that is 100% accurate to the ground truth, the maximum accuracy modeled with a Cohen kappa of.8 ranged from.60 to.85 (F-2). The reliability of reviewing iEEG to localize the SOZ has been evaluated only in a small sample of patients with methodologic limitations. The ability of any algorithm to estimate the SOZ is notably limited by the reliability of iEEG interpretation. We acknowledge practical limitations of rigorous reliability analysis, and we propose design characteristics and study questions to further investigate reliability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)6-16
Number of pages11
JournalEpilepsia
Volume64
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 The Authors. Epilepsia published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International League Against Epilepsy.

Keywords

  • electrocorticography
  • intracranial electroencephalography
  • reliability
  • seizure onset zone
  • stereoencephalography

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Journal Article
  • Review

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