Reliability of the BodyGuard2 (FirstBeat) in the Detection of Heart Rate Variability

Alyssa R. Palmer, Rebecca Distefano, Keira Leneman, Daniel Berry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


There has been an increasing interest in using cardiac indicators of self-regulation in developmental science. Many researchers are interested in unobtrusive mobile devises that are able to collect reliable cardiac data outside of the laboratory setting. Although numerous new ambulatory devices have become available over the last decade, testing these devices on children in comparison to industry gold-standard devices is rarely conducted. The current study evaluated the reliability of one of these ambulatory systems, the BodyGuard2 (FirstBeat), relative to gold-standard laboratory electrocardiogram (Biopac MP150), during active and resting conditions in 4- to 6-year-old children. The BodyGuard2 performed and produced highly similar indices of heart rate variability across resting and active conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)251-258
Number of pages8
JournalApplied Psychophysiology Biofeedback
Issue number3
Early online dateApr 15 2021
StatePublished - Sep 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the children and families who participated in the research as well as Amanda Grenell, and Stephanie Carlson for their help with data collection and processing. This research was supported by a predoctoral fellowship from the National Institute of Health (T32 MH015755 to ARP), the University of Minnesota Interdisciplinary Fellowship (to ARP), and the Institute of Child Development Graduate Student Small Grants Program (to RD). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.


  • Ambulatory measures
  • Biopac
  • BodyGuard2
  • Heart rate variability
  • Inter-beat interval

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't


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