Reliability and Validity of the SA-45: Further Evidence from a Primary Care Setting

Mark E. Maruish, Boris Bershadsky, Leonard Goldstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

22 Scopus citations


A project designed to demonstrate the benefits of integrating behavioral healthcare services in primary medical care settings provided an opportunity to further investigate the psychometric properties of the SA-45 using data from a sample of 126 adults seeking medical services in a family practice setting. Specifically, the appropriateness of the SA-45's adult nonpatient norms, as well as cross-validation of its test-retest reliability and construct validity, was investigated from the first set of data gathered for this project. The results suggested that use of the SA-45 nonpatient norms with primary care populations is appropriate. Three-month test-retest correlations between Depression scale scores and SA-45 and SA-24-predicted GSI scores were found to be moderate but highly significant. In addition, correlations among the SA-45 scales and indices and their correlations with the SF-12 Mental and Physical Component Summary scales added further support for the psychometric integrity of the SA-45. Finally, only partial indirect support was obtained for the SA-45's ability to accurately classify patients as requiring further evaluation for behavioral health problems. Limitations of the study are discussed and suggestions for future research are presented.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)407-420
Number of pages14
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1998


  • Integrated primary behavioral healthcare
  • Primary care
  • SA-45
  • SF-12
  • Screening for mental disorders

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