Reliability and validity of the pittsburgh sleep quality index and the epworth sleepiness scale in older men

Adam P. Spira, Sherry A. Beaudreau, Katie L. Stone, Eric J. Kezirian, Li Yung Lui, Susan Redline, Sonia Ancoli-Israel, Kristine Ensrud, Anita Stewart

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

148 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) are commonly used to quantify sleep and excessive daytime sleepiness in older adults. These measures, however, have not been comprehensively evaluated for their psychometrics in older men. We determined the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the PSQI and ESS in a sample of older men. Methods. Participants were 3,059 men (mean age = 76.4 years) in the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS) who completed the two questionnaires, wrist actigraphy, and a range of additional psychosocial and health measures. Results. Internal consistency was adequate for the PSQI (Cronbach's α = .69) and the ESS (α = .70) total scores. PSQI daytime dysfunction and sleep medications components were weakly associated with the total score, but their removal did not notably improve internal consistency. PSQI and ESS totals were associated with each other and with theoretically related variables (ie, actigraphic variables, depressive symptoms, mobility/instrumental activities of daily living, health-related quality of life) in expected directions. The PSQI differentiated participants reporting no sleep disorder from those reporting particular disorders more reliably than the ESS. Conclusions. In general, we found evidence of the internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the PSQI and ESS in older men. Despite low correlation with the PSQI global score, the PSQI daytime dysfunction and sleep medications components do not appreciably reduce the PSQI total score's reliability or validity in older men.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)433-439
Number of pages7
JournalJournals of Gerontology - Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Volume67 A
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study is supported by National Institutes of Health funding. The following Institutes provide support: the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases, the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), and National Institutes of Health Roadmap for Medical Research under the following grant numbers: U01 AR45580, U01 AR45614, U01 AR45632, U01 AR45647, U01 AR45654, U01 AR45583, U01 AG18197, U01-AG027810, and UL1 RR024140. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute provides funding for the MrOS Sleep ancillary study “Outcomes of Sleep Disorders in Older Men” under the following grant numbers: R01 HL071194, R01 HL070848, R01 HL070847, R01 HL070842, R01 HL070841, R01 HL070837, R01 HL070838, and R01 HL070839. A.P.S. is supported by K01AG033195 and S.A-I. by R01AG008415 from the NIA. E.J.K. is supported by a career development award from the NCRR of the National Institutes of Health and a Triological Society Research Career Development Award of the American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society (KL2RR024130).

Keywords

  • Men
  • Psychometrics
  • Reliability
  • Sleep
  • Validity

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