We evaluated the performance of a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire (SFFQ), the Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall (ASA24), and 7-day dietary records (7DDRs), in comparison with biomarkers, in the estimation of nutrient intakes among 627 women in the Women's Lifestyle Validation Study (United States, 2010-2012). Two paper SFFQs, 1 Web-based SFFQ, 4 ASA24s (beta version), 2 7DDRs, 4 24-hour urine samples, 1 doubly labeled water measurement (repeated among 76 participants), and 2 fasting blood samples were collected over a 15-month period. The dietary variables evaluated were energy, energy-Adjusted intakes of protein, sodium, potassium, and specific fatty acids, carotenoids, α-Tocopherol, retinol, and folate. In general, relative to biomarkers, averaged ASA24s had lower validity than the SFFQ completed at the end of the data-collection year (SFFQ2); SFFQ2 had slightly lower validity than 1 7DDR; the averaged SFFQs had validity similar to that of 1 7DDR; and the averaged 7DDRs had the highest validity. The deattenuated correlation of energy-Adjusted protein intake assessed by SFFQ2 with its biomarker was 0.46, similar to its correlation with 7DDRs (deattenuated r = 0.54). These data indicate that the SFFQ2 provides reasonably valid measurements of energy-Adjusted intake for most of the nutrients assessed in our study, consistent with earlier conclusions derived using 7DDRs as the comparison method. The ASA24 needs further evaluation for use in large population studies, but an average of 3 days of measurement will not be sufficient for some important nutrients.
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Author affiliations: Department of Nutrition, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Changzheng Yuan, Donna Spiegelman, Eric B. Rimm, Meir J. Stampfer, Junaidah B. Barnett, Jorge E. Chavarro, Laura K. Sampson, Walter C. Willett); Department of Epidemiology, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Changzheng Yuan, Donna Spiegelman, Eric B. Rimm, Meir J. Stampfer, Jorge E. Chavarro, Walter C. Willett); Department of Biostatistics, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts (Donna Spiegelman, Bernard A. Rosner); Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts (Eric B. Rimm, Bernard A. Rosner, Meir J. Stampfer, Jorge E. Chavarro, Laura K. Sampson, Walter C. Willett); Nutritional Immunology Laboratory, Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging, Tufts University, Boston, Massachusetts (Junaidah B. Barnett); Pennington Biomedical Research Center of the Louisiana State University System, Baton Rouge, Louisiana (Jennifer C. Rood); and Division of Epidemiology and Community Health, School of Public Health, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota (Lisa J. Harnack). All authors contributed equally to the work. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health (grants UM1 CA186107, UM1 CA176726, and P01 CA055075-18S1). C.Y. was supported by the Breast Cancer Research Foundation.
- concentration biomarkers
- diet records
- food frequency questionnaires
- nutrient intakes
- recovery biomarkers
- relative validity