Relative incidence of blepharoptosis subtypes in an oculoplastics practice at a tertiary care center

Janet M. Lim, Joshua H. Hou, Ramesh M. Singa, Vinay K. Aakalu, Pete Setabutr

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


Purpose: In patients referred with blepharoptosis, the possibility of an underlying systemic cause for their ptosis can warrant a more detailed evaluation. The purpose of this study is to determine both the incidence and demographic characteristics associated with different types of ptosis in patients referred to the oculoplastics division at a tertiary care center. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all patients referred to the oculoplastics division between 2007 and 2010. Final etiology for each patient's ptosis was determined based on history, standard eyelid measurements, and ancillary testing. Based on etiology, ptosis was categorized as aponeurotic, neurogenic, myogenic, traumatic, congenital, or mechanical. Demographics, including median age and sex were analyzed for patients in each category of ptosis. Results: Of the 251 patients, aponeurotic ptosis was the most common type of ptosis (60.2%), followed by traumatic (11.2%), congenital (10.4%), mechanical (8.8%), neurogenic (5.6%), and myogenic (4.0%). Of the neurogenic group, 35.7% of patients had cranial nerve 3 (CN 3) palsy, 28.6% had myasthenia gravis, 14.3% had aberrant regeneration, and 7.1% had Horner's syndrome. Thirty percent of the myogenic group had chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia (CPEO). The congenital group had the youngest median age (10.5 years), yet the aponeurotic group had the oldest (62 years). Conclusions: A significant proportion of patients referred with ptosis had more serious conditions such as neurogenic or myogenic ptosis. Thus, clinicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion and thoroughly evaluate all patients with ptosis in order to properly assess for underlying systemic associations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)231-234
Number of pages4
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 2013


  • Cranial nerve 3 palsy
  • Horner's syndrome
  • Myasthenia gravis
  • Myogenic ptosis
  • Neurogenic ptosis


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