Relationships Between the Cumulative Incidences of Long-term Complications in Type 1 Diabetes: The DCCT/EDIC Study

The DCCT/EDIC research group

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5 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To describe the relationships between the cumulative incidences of long-term complications in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and assess whether observed associations are independent of age, duration of diabetes, and glycemic levels. METHODS Proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), clinically significant macular edema (CSME), reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), amputations, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and mortality were assessed in the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/ Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study over ~30 years. RESEARCH DESIGN AND RESULTS The cumulative incidence of complications ranged from 3% (amputations) to 37% (CSME). There were large differences in the cumulative incidence of PDR between participants with versus without prior CSME (66% vs. 15%), reduced eGFR (59% vs. 29%), and amputation (68% vs. 32%); reduced eGFR with or without prior PDR (25% vs. 9%), amputation (48% vs. 13%), and CVD (30% vs. 11%); CVD with or without prior reduced eGFR (37% vs. 14%) and amputation (50% vs. 16%); and mortality with or without prior reduced eGFR (22% vs. 9%), amputation (35% vs. 8%), and CVD (25% vs. 8%). Adjusted for age, duration of T1D, and mean updated HbA1c, the complications and associations with higher risk included PDR with CSME (hazard ratio [HR] 1.88; 95% CI 1.42, 2.50), reduced eGFR (HR 1.41; 95% CI 1.01, 1.97), and CVD (HR 1.43; 95% CI 1.06, 1.92); CSME with higher risk of PDR (HR 3.94; 95% CI 3.18 4.89), reduced eGFR (HR 1.49; 95% CI 1.10, 2.01), and CVD (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.03, 1.78); reduced eGFR with higher risk of CVD (HR 2.09; 95% CI 1.44, 3.03), and death (HR 3.40; 95% CI 2.35, 4.92); amputation(s) with death (HR 2.97; 95% CI 1.70, 2.90); and CVD with reduced eGFR (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.08, 2.34) and death (HR 1.95; 95% CI 1.32, 2.90). CONCLUSIONS Long-term micro-and macrovascular complications and mortality are highly correlated. Age, diabetes duration, and glycemic levels do not completely explain these associations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)361-368
Number of pages8
JournalDiabetes care
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding. The DCCT/EDIC has been supported by cooperative agreement grants (1982–1993, 2012–2022) and contracts (1982–2012) with the Division of Diabetes Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease (NIDDK; current grants U01 DK094176 and U01 DK094157), and through support from the National Eye Institute, the National Institute of Neurologic Disorders and Stroke, the General Clinical Research Centers Program (1993–2007), and Clinical Translational Science Center Program (2006–present), Bethesda, MD. The following industry contributors have had no role in the DCCT/EDIC study but have provided free or discounted supplies or equipment to support participants’ adherence to the study: Abbott Diabetes Care (Alameda, CA), Animas (Westchester, PA), Bayer Diabetes Care (North America Headquarters, Tarrytown, NY), Becton Dickinson (Franklin Lakes, NJ), Eli Lilly (Indianapolis, IN), Extend Nutrition (St. Louis, MO), Insulet Corporation (Bedford, MA), Lifescan (Milpitas, CA), Medtronic Diabetes (Minneapolis, MN), Nipro Home Diagnostics (Ft. Lauderdale, FL), Nova Diabetes Care (Billerica, MA), Omron (Shelton, CT), Perrigo Diabetes Care (Allegan, MI), Roche Diabetes Care (Indianapolis, IN), and Sanofi (Bridgewater, NJ). Duality of Interest. B.A.P. has received speaker honoraria from Abbott, Medtronic, Insu-let, and Novo Nordisk, served as an advisor to Boehringer Ingelheim, Insulet, Sanofi, and Abbott, and has received research support to his research institute from Novo Nordisk, and the Bank of Montreal. No other potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported. Author Contributions. I.B. and M.E.M. designed the study with input from all coauthors. I.B. conducted the statistical analyses. I.B. and M.E.M. wrote the initial draft of the manuscript. All authors contributed revisions to the article and approve the final content. I.B. is the guarantor of this work and, as such, had full access to all the data in the study and takes responsibility for the integrity of the data and the accuracy of the data analysis.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 by the American Diabetes Association.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural


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