Relationships between Early Nutrition, Illness, and Later Outcomes among Infants Born Preterm with Hyperglycemia

Juan David Gonzalez Villamizar, Jacob L. Haapala, Johannah M. Scheurer, Raghavendra Rao, Sara E. Ramel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle


Objective: To evaluate the effects of hyperglycemia on body composition and neurodevelopment, and how early nutrition and illness modify these relationships in infants born preterm. Study design: Prospective data were collected from infants born <32 weeks of gestational age (N = 97), including inpatient days of hyperglycemia (blood glucose >150 mg/dL) and nutrient intake. Body composition was measured at discharge and 4 months' postmenstrual age (PMA). Bayley Scales of Infant Development III (BSID-III) were administered at 12 months' PMA. Linear regression analysis was performed, adjusting for birth gestational age. Associations between hyperglycemia, body composition, and BSID-III were analyzed in models accounting for first-week nutrition and early illness severity via Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology-II. Results: Mean birth gestational age was 27.8 (SD 2.4) weeks. Hyperglycemia occurred in 48.5% of infants. Hyperglycemia for ≥5 days was negatively associated with fat mass and fat free mass z scores at discharge, and fat free mass z score at 4 months' PMA (P < .05 all). Hyperglycemia for ≥5 days was negatively associated with cognition, language, and motor scores on the BSDI at 12 months (P ≤ .01 all). Associations with body composition and BSID-III were diminished when models included first week nutrition yet remained unchanged when illness severity was included. Conclusions: In infants <32 weeks, ≥5 days of hyperglycemia is associated with decreased lean mass at 4 months' PMA and poorer neurodevelopmental outcome at 12 months' PMA. These associations may be mediated by decreased first week nutrition, potentially related to reduced glucose infusion rate for management of hyperglycemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)29-33.e2
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
StatePublished - Aug 2020


  • body composition
  • infant
  • neurodevelopment
  • prematurity

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

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