Relationship between tomm performance and PAI validity scales in a mixed clinical sample

Douglas M. Whiteside, Philip Dunbar-Mayer, Dana P. Waters

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


This study addressed the relationship between Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) validity indicators and cognitive effort measures on the Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM). Significant correlations were found between TOMM and some PAI validity scales. Factor analysis results found separate cognitive and personality components, but the Negative Impression Management (NIM) scale, a measure of response bias, had factor loadings on both the cognitive and the personality components. Follow-up hierarchical multiple regression and t-test analysis generally confirmed this result, and found that NIM and the Infrequency (INF) scale have significant relationships with the TOMM. The results indicate that individuals with elevations on the PAI's INF and NIM scales often display decreased cognitive effort on the TOMM. The current results support the hypothesis that personality assessment validity indicators have a modest but significant relationship with poor cognitive effort.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)523-533
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Neuropsychologist
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 1 2009
Externally publishedYes


  • Forensic assessment
  • PAI
  • Response bias
  • Symptom validity
  • TOMM


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