Background: Subclinical cardiovascular risks of secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among children and adolescents remains insufficiently described. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 298 children and adolescents (48.0% male, body mass index: 27.0 ± 8.9 kg/m2), including 49 self-reported cases with SHS. Arterial elasticity and stiffness (distensibility, compliance, incremental elastic modulus [IEM]) were obtained via ultrasound imaging in the abdominal aorta, brachial, and carotid arteries. A one-way analysis of variance compared differences between groups, and multiple linear regression adjusted for covariates. Results: SHS was associated with lower abdominal aorta diameter distensibility (aDD) (13.4 ± 3.6% vs. 16.0 ± 5.2%, p = 0.009) and abdominal aorta cross-sectional distensibility (aCSD) (28.8 ± 8.3% vs. 35.1 ± 12.2%, p = 0.009), as well as higher abdominal aorta IEM (aIEM) (1241 ± 794 vs. 935 ± 388 mmHg, p = 0.001). After adjustment for covariates, aDD (p = 0.047), aCSD (p = 0.040), and aIEM (p = 0.017) remained significant; this significance persisted with the additional adjustment of percent body fat. Measures of brachial and carotid compliance and distensibility were not associated with SHS. Conclusions: SHS was associated with abdominal aorta stiffness; the majority of vascular measures within the brachial and carotid artery remained unaffected following adjustment for covariates, including hypertension and adiposity. SHS may predispose individuals to increased abdominal aorta stiffness, an artery previously reported to exhibit increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Funding for this project was provided by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (R01HL110957, awarded to A.S.K.).
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural