Relation of Dietary Sodium Intake With Subclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease (from MESA)

K. Kapoor, Oluwaseun Fashanu, Wendy S. Post, Pamela L. Lutsey, Erin D. Michos, Christopher R. deFilippi, J. William McEvoy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


The associations between dietary sodium intake and markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and amino terminal pro b-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), may provide mechanistic insight into the relation between dietary sodium and cardiovascular events. We studied 6,131 participants of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis, who were free of clinical CVD at baseline. Food frequency questionnaires were used to assess estimated sodium intake (ESI) at baseline. We tested the associations between 5 quintiles of ESI (quintile 1: 0.2 to 1.3 grams/day, quintile 2: 1.3 to 1.8 grams/day, quintile 3: 1.8 to 2.4 grams/day, quintile 4: 2.4 to 3.2 grams/day, and quintile 5: 3.2 to 9.9 grams/day) with cross-sectional and 5-year longitudinal change in hs-cTnT and NT-proBNP concentrations. Restricted cubic spline plots were utilized to explore the shape of the associations between ESI and biomarker outcomes. A cross-sectional association between baseline sodium intake and hs-cTnT (but not NT-proBNP) was observed, driven predominantly by a strong positive relation at an intake range of 0.2 to 2.4 g/day. Conversely, a longitudinal association between baseline sodium intake and NT-proBNP (but not hs-cTnT) was observed, driven predominantly by a strong positive relation at intake levels ≥2.4 g/day. In conclusion, temporal shifts in the association between increased ESI and markers of subclinical CVD, hs-cTnT in the short term and NT-proBNP in the longer term, point to the complex pathobiology of the association between sodium intake and CVD. There was also no consistent evidence supporting a J-curve (i.e., excess biomarker values at very low ESI).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)636-643
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Cardiology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Aug 15 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
MESA Funding Statement : This research was supported by contracts HHSN268201500003I, N01-HC-95159, N01-HC-95160, N01-HC-95161, N01-HC-95162, N01-HC-95163, N01-HC-95164, N01-HC-95165, N01-HC-95166, N01-HC-95167, N01-HC-95168 and N01-HC-95169 from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute , and by grants UL1-TR-000040 , UL1-TR-001079 , and UL1-TR-001420 from NCATS. Additionally, Roche Diagnostics supported in-part the measure of biomarkers through an investigator initiated grant to the University of Maryland (PI: Christopher deFilippi). The authors thank the other investigators, the staff, and the participants of the MESA study for their valuable contributions. A full list of participating MESA investigators and institutions can be found at .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2019 Elsevier Inc.


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