MicroRNA (miRNA) influences carcinogenesis at multiple stages and it can effectively control tumor radiosensitivity by affecting DNA damage repair, cell cycle checkpoint, apoptosis, radio-related signal transduction pathways and tumor microenvironment. MiRNA also efficiently modulates tumor radiosensitivity at multiple levels by blocking the two essential non-homologous end-joining repair and homologous recombination repair pathways in the DNA damage response. It interferes with four radio-related pathways in ionizing radiation, including the PI3-K/Akt, NF-κB, MAPK and TGFβ signaling pathways. Moreover, the regulatory effect of miRNA in radiosensitivity can be enhanced when interacting with various key molecules, including H2AX, BRCA1, ATM, DNA-PK, RAD51, Chk1, Cdc25A, p53, PLK1, HIF-1 and VEGF, which are involved in these processes. Therefore, thoroughly understanding the mechanism of miRNA in tumor radiosensitivity could assist in finding novel targets to improve the radiotherapeutic effects and provide new clinical perspectives and insights for developing effective cancer treatments.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
National Key Basic Research Program of China (2011CB504300); the Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (30930101); the Co-Research Science Foundation of the Oversea and Hong Kong-Marco in China (81028012); the Hunan Provincial Innovation Foundation For Postgraduate in China (CX2012A005); the National Institutes of Health (USA) (R37 CA081064, CA027502, ES016548); The Hormel Foundation (USA).