Regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (Npr2) by phosphorylation of juxtamembrane serine and threonine residues is essential for bifurcation of sensory axons

Hannes Schmidt, Deborah M Dickey, Alexandre Dumoulin, Marie Octave, Jerid W Robinson, Ralf Kühn, Robert Feil, Lincoln R Potter, Fritz G. Rathjen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

cGMP signaling elicited by activation of the transmembrane receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 (also known as guanylyl cyclase B) by the ligand CNP controls sensory axon bifurcation of DRG and cranial sensory ganglion (CSG) neurons entering the spinal cord or hindbrain, respectively. Previous studies have shown that Npr2 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in its kinase homology domain (KHD). However, it is unknown whether phosphorylation of Npr2 is essential for axon bifurcation. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse line in which the seven regulatory serine and threonine residues in the KHD of Npr2 were substituted by alanine (Npr2-7A), resulting in a nonphosphorylatable enzyme. Real-time imaging of cGMP in DRG neurons with a genetically encoded fluorescent cGMP sensor or biochemical analysis of guanylyl cyclase activity in brain or lung tissue revealed the absence of CNP-induced cGMP generation in the Npr27A/7A mutant. Consequently, bifurcation of axons, but not collateral formation, from DRG or CSG in this mouse mutant was perturbed at embryonic and mature stages. In contrast, axon branching was normal in a mouse mutant in which constitutive phosphorylation of Npr2 is mimicked by a replacement of all of the seven serine and threonine sites by glutamic acid (Npr2–7E). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Npr27A/7A mutation causes dwarfism as described for global Npr2 mutants. In conclusion, our in vivo studies provide strong evidence that phosphorylation of the seven serine and threonine residues in the KHD of Npr2 is an important regulatory element of Npr2-mediated cGMP signaling which affects physiological processes, such as axon bifurcation and bone growth.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)9768-9780
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume38
Issue number45
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 7 2018

Fingerprint

Natriuretic Peptides
Peptide Receptors
Threonine
Serine
Axons
Phosphorylation
Diagnosis-Related Groups
Sensory Ganglia
Phosphotransferases
Guanylate Cyclase
Guanylate Cyclase-Coupled Receptors
Physiological Phenomena
Dwarfism
Rhombencephalon
Bone Development
Sensory Receptor Cells
Alanine
Glutamic Acid
Spinal Cord
Ligands

Keywords

  • Axonal branching
  • CGMP signaling
  • Npr2
  • Phosphorylation
  • Sensory axons

Cite this

Regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (Npr2) by phosphorylation of juxtamembrane serine and threonine residues is essential for bifurcation of sensory axons. / Schmidt, Hannes; Dickey, Deborah M; Dumoulin, Alexandre; Octave, Marie; Robinson, Jerid W; Kühn, Ralf; Feil, Robert; Potter, Lincoln R; Rathjen, Fritz G.

In: Journal of Neuroscience, Vol. 38, No. 45, 07.11.2018, p. 9768-9780.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Schmidt, Hannes ; Dickey, Deborah M ; Dumoulin, Alexandre ; Octave, Marie ; Robinson, Jerid W ; Kühn, Ralf ; Feil, Robert ; Potter, Lincoln R ; Rathjen, Fritz G. / Regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (Npr2) by phosphorylation of juxtamembrane serine and threonine residues is essential for bifurcation of sensory axons. In: Journal of Neuroscience. 2018 ; Vol. 38, No. 45. pp. 9768-9780.
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abstract = "cGMP signaling elicited by activation of the transmembrane receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 (also known as guanylyl cyclase B) by the ligand CNP controls sensory axon bifurcation of DRG and cranial sensory ganglion (CSG) neurons entering the spinal cord or hindbrain, respectively. Previous studies have shown that Npr2 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in its kinase homology domain (KHD). However, it is unknown whether phosphorylation of Npr2 is essential for axon bifurcation. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse line in which the seven regulatory serine and threonine residues in the KHD of Npr2 were substituted by alanine (Npr2-7A), resulting in a nonphosphorylatable enzyme. Real-time imaging of cGMP in DRG neurons with a genetically encoded fluorescent cGMP sensor or biochemical analysis of guanylyl cyclase activity in brain or lung tissue revealed the absence of CNP-induced cGMP generation in the Npr27A/7A mutant. Consequently, bifurcation of axons, but not collateral formation, from DRG or CSG in this mouse mutant was perturbed at embryonic and mature stages. In contrast, axon branching was normal in a mouse mutant in which constitutive phosphorylation of Npr2 is mimicked by a replacement of all of the seven serine and threonine sites by glutamic acid (Npr2–7E). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Npr27A/7A mutation causes dwarfism as described for global Npr2 mutants. In conclusion, our in vivo studies provide strong evidence that phosphorylation of the seven serine and threonine residues in the KHD of Npr2 is an important regulatory element of Npr2-mediated cGMP signaling which affects physiological processes, such as axon bifurcation and bone growth.",
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T1 - Regulation of the natriuretic peptide receptor 2 (Npr2) by phosphorylation of juxtamembrane serine and threonine residues is essential for bifurcation of sensory axons

AU - Schmidt, Hannes

AU - Dickey, Deborah M

AU - Dumoulin, Alexandre

AU - Octave, Marie

AU - Robinson, Jerid W

AU - Kühn, Ralf

AU - Feil, Robert

AU - Potter, Lincoln R

AU - Rathjen, Fritz G.

PY - 2018/11/7

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AB - cGMP signaling elicited by activation of the transmembrane receptor guanylyl cyclase Npr2 (also known as guanylyl cyclase B) by the ligand CNP controls sensory axon bifurcation of DRG and cranial sensory ganglion (CSG) neurons entering the spinal cord or hindbrain, respectively. Previous studies have shown that Npr2 is phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues in its kinase homology domain (KHD). However, it is unknown whether phosphorylation of Npr2 is essential for axon bifurcation. Here, we generated a knock-in mouse line in which the seven regulatory serine and threonine residues in the KHD of Npr2 were substituted by alanine (Npr2-7A), resulting in a nonphosphorylatable enzyme. Real-time imaging of cGMP in DRG neurons with a genetically encoded fluorescent cGMP sensor or biochemical analysis of guanylyl cyclase activity in brain or lung tissue revealed the absence of CNP-induced cGMP generation in the Npr27A/7A mutant. Consequently, bifurcation of axons, but not collateral formation, from DRG or CSG in this mouse mutant was perturbed at embryonic and mature stages. In contrast, axon branching was normal in a mouse mutant in which constitutive phosphorylation of Npr2 is mimicked by a replacement of all of the seven serine and threonine sites by glutamic acid (Npr2–7E). Furthermore, we demonstrate that the Npr27A/7A mutation causes dwarfism as described for global Npr2 mutants. In conclusion, our in vivo studies provide strong evidence that phosphorylation of the seven serine and threonine residues in the KHD of Npr2 is an important regulatory element of Npr2-mediated cGMP signaling which affects physiological processes, such as axon bifurcation and bone growth.

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