Regulation of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) transcriptome by the HIV-1 tat protein

Marta J. Gonzalez-Hernandez, James D. Cavalcoli, Maureen A. Sartor, Rafael Contreras-Galindo, Fan Meng, Manhong Dai, Derek Dube, Anjan K. Saha, Scott D. Gitlin, Gilbert S. Omenn, Mark H. Kaplan, David M. Markovitz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

48 Scopus citations


Approximately 8% of the human genome is made up of endogenous retroviral sequences. As the HIV-1 Tat protein activates the overall expression of the human endogenous retrovirus type K (HERV-K) (HML-2), we used next-generation sequencing to determine which of the 91 currently annotated HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses are regulated by Tat. Transcriptome sequencing of total RNA isolated from Tat- and vehicle-treated peripheral blood lymphocytes from a healthy donor showed that Tat significantly activates expression of 26 unique HERV-K (HML-2) proviruses, silences 12, and does not significantly alter the expression of the remaining proviruses. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR validation of the sequencing data was performed on Tattreated PBLs of seven donors using provirus-specific primers and corroborated the results with a substantial degree of quantitative similarity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)8924-8935
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of virology
Issue number16
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


Dive into the research topics of 'Regulation of the human endogenous retrovirus K (HML-2) transcriptome by the HIV-1 tat protein'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this