The kinetics of a synthase phosphatase reaction inhibited by ATP-Mg in a liver glycogen particle preparation were complex. In the presence of a physiological concentration of ATP-Mg, synthase phosphatase activity in the glycogen particle follows a biphasic course. Initially, the reaction was inhibited but later the reaction rate accelerated. The reaction was inhibited but the rate was constant in the presence of ATP-Mg with the addition of a physiological concentration of glucose 6-phosphate (Glc 6-P). Therefore, in most subsequent experiments Glc 6-P was added. The concentration of ATP-Mg at which 50% maximal inhibition (I0.5) occurred was approximately 0.1 mm in preparations obtained from rats given glucagon prior to being killed. In preparations from animals given glucose, the I0.5 was increased to 2.0 mm. The maximum inhibition was little changed in preparations from glucose- or glucagon-treated animals. Thus, administration of glucose in vivo reduced the sensitivity of the synthase phosphatase to ATP-Mg inhibition. Complexes of ATP with paramagnetic ions such as Co2+ and Mn2+ were less inhibitory than complexes with diamagnetic ions, including Ca2+ and Mg2+. Magnesium complexes of adenosine tetraphosphate and 5′-adenylimidodiphosphate also were inhibitory. Inhibition was independent of phosphorylase a and not a nonspecific, polyvalent anion effect. The best explanation for the distinctive effects of ATP-Mg in preparations from glucagon- and glucose-treated animals is that the respective treatments promote and stabilize different forms of synthase D or possibly synthase phosphatase with different affinities for ATP-Mg. These forms are interconvertible, as previously suggested, in studies employing EDTA (20).