In the oral cavity, mucosal keratinocytes resist bacterial infection, in part, by producing broad-spectrum antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) including defensin, adrenomedullin and calprotectin. Epidermal keratinocyte expression of many AMPs increases in response to interleukin-1α (IL-1α). IL-1α is produced by epidermal keratinocytes and regulates cell differentiation. To better understand innate immunity in the oral cavity, we sought to determine how IL-1α might regulate expression of AMPs by human gingival keratinocytes (HGKs) using DNA microarray and Western blot analyses. HGKs from three subjects expressed eleven AMPs, including S100A7, S100A8, S100A9, S100A12, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor, lipocalin 2 (LCN2), cystatin C and β-defensin 2. Of the expressed AMPs, S100A7, S100A12 and LCN2 were up-regulated by IL-1α (inducible AMPs); the other AMPs were considered to be constitutive. Human gingival keratinocytes, therefore, express constitutive and IL-1α-inducible AMPs to provide a rapid and robust innate response to microbial infection.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors are very grateful to Dr. Masaru Nagayama, Dr. Youji Miyamoto and Dr. Kazuhito Satomura (The University of Tokushima Graduate School) for the help to supply of gingival fragments. This study was supported in part by Grants-in Aid (19592388 and 21592625) for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion and by NIH grants RO1DE11831 and RO1DE15503 to MCH.
This study was supported in part by Grants-in Aid (19592388 and 21592625) for Scientific Research from the Japan Society for the Promotion and by NIH grants RO1DE11831 and RO1DE15503 to MCH.
- Antimicrobial peptide
- Gingival keratinocyte
- Microarray analysis