Regional myocardial blood flow was measured in nine dogs at rest and during three levels of treadmill exercise by using left atrial injections of 7-10-mum radioactive microspheres. At rest, heart rate was 76 plus or minus 3 beats/min (mean plus or minus SEM), mean left ventricular myocardial flow was 0.94 plus or minus 0.09 ml/min/g and endocardial flow (endo) exceeded epicardial flow (epi) in all regions (endo/epi equals 1.12-1.33). When treadmill exercise was regulated to increase heart rates from 152 plus or minus 3 to 190 plus or minus 3 to 240 plus or minus 6 beats/min, myocardial blood flow (MBF) to all regions of the left ventricle increased linearly with heart rate (HR) from 1.83 plus or minus 0.11 to 2.75 plus or minus 0.22 to 3.90 plus or minus 0.26 ml/min/g (MBF EQUALs 0.0175 HR - 0.523 PLUS OR MINUS 0.614, R EQUALS 0.87). Exercise abolished the gradient of blood flow favoring the left ventricular endocardium at rest, so that the endo/epi flow ratios were not significantly different from 1.00. Right ventricular flows were consistently less than corresponding left ventricular flows, but showed a similar linear increase with heart rate. Right ventricular endo/epi ratios were not different from 1.00 either at rest or during exercise. Thus, exercise resulted in increased myocardial blood flow to all regions of the left and right ventricles with maintenance of subendocardial flow equal to subepicardial flow.