Regional and Sex-Specific Alterations in the Visual Cortex of Individuals With Psychosis Spectrum Disorders

Halide Bilge Türközer, Paulo Lizano, Iniya Adhan, Elena I. Ivleva, Olivia Lutz, Victor Zeng, Alexandria Zeng, Nicholas Raymond, Deepthi Bannai, Adam Lee, Jeffrey R. Bishop, Brett A. Clementz, Godfrey D. Pearlson, John A. Sweeney, Elliot S. Gershon, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Carol A. Tamminga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Impairments of the visual system are implicated in psychotic disorders. However, studies exploring visual cortex (VC) morphology in this population are limited. Using data from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes consortium, we examined VC structure in psychosis probands and their first-degree relatives (RELs), sex differences in VC measures, and their relationships with cognitive and peripheral inflammatory markers. Methods: Cortical thickness, surface area, and volume of the primary (Brodmann area 17/V1) and secondary (Brodmann area 18/V2) visual areas and the middle temporal (V5/MT) region were quantified using FreeSurfer version 6.0 in psychosis probands (n = 530), first-degree RELs (n = 544), and healthy control subjects (n = 323). Familiality estimates were determined for probands and RELs. General cognition, response inhibition, and emotion recognition functions were assessed. Systemic inflammation was measured in a subset of participants. Results: Psychosis probands demonstrated significant area, thickness, and volume reductions in V1, V2, and MT, and their first-degree RELs demonstrated area and volume reductions in MT compared with control subjects. There was a higher degree of familiality for VC area than thickness. Area and volume reductions in V1 and V2 were sex dependent, affecting only female probands in a regionally specific manner. Reductions in some VC regions were correlated with poor general cognition, worse response inhibition, and increased C-reactive protein levels. Conclusions: The visual cortex is a site of significant pathology in psychotic disorders, with distinct patterns of area and thickness changes, sex-specific and regional effects, potential contributions to cognitive impairments, and association with C-reactive protein levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)396-406
Number of pages11
JournalBiological psychiatry
Volume92
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (Grant Nos. MH-077851 [to CAT], MH-078113 [to MSK], MH-077945 [to GDP], MH-077852 [to Gunvant K. Thaker], and MH-077862 [to JAS]). HBT was supported by the NIMH (Grant No. R25MH101078). PL is supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Grant No. 1KL2TR002542), the DuPont Warren and Livingston Award from Harvard Medical School, and the Sydney R. Baer Jr Foundation. Research reported in this publication was also supported by a pilot grant to JRB from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH (Grant No. ULlTR000114). We would like to thank Gunvant K. Thaker, M.D. who was closely involved with the initial stages of the B-SNIP consortium development, and was a principal investigator at the B-SNIP Maryland site (Maryland Psychiatric Research Institute, University of Maryland). The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of NIH. Unrelated to this work, CAT is on the Advisory Board for Karuna, KyNexis, Sunovion, Autifony, and Astellas. CAT is also a council member (unpaid) for The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation/National Alliance for Research on Schizophrenia & Depression. JAS consulted to VeraSci. MSK has been an adviser to Alkermes and Takeda. All other authors report no biomedical financial interests or potential conflicts of interest.

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) (Grant Nos. MH-077851 [to CAT] , MH-078113 [to MSK] , MH-077945 [to GDP] , MH-077852 [to Gunvant K. Thaker] , and MH-077862 [to JAS] ). HBT was supported by the NIMH (Grant No. R25MH101078). PL is supported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) (Grant No. 1KL2TR002542 ), the DuPont Warren and Livingston Award from Harvard Medical School, and the Sydney R. Baer Jr Foundation. Research reported in this publication was also supported by a pilot grant to JRB from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the NIH (Grant No. ULlTR000114).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 Society of Biological Psychiatry

Keywords

  • Cognition
  • Inflammation
  • MT
  • Neuroimaging
  • V1
  • V2

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'Regional and Sex-Specific Alterations in the Visual Cortex of Individuals With Psychosis Spectrum Disorders'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this