Refractory hypertension is associated with the haptoglobin 2-2 phenotype

Joris R. Delanghe, Daniel A. Duprez, Marc L. De Buyzere, Bernard M. Bergez, Lutgarde R. Claeys, Geert G. Leroux-Roels, Denis L. Clement

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29 Scopus citations


Background: Many cases of refractory hypertension cannot be attributed to specific identifiable factors. Haptoglobin polymorphism has been suggested as a candidate genetic marker in essential hypertension. The aim of this study was to investigate the distribution of haptoglobin types in patients with refractory hypertension. Methods: Haptoglobin polymorphism was studied in 363 patients with non-refractory and 62 patients with refractory hypertension. Haptoglobin was typed using starch gel electrophoresis of haemoglobin-supplemented serum. Results: In the group of patients with refractory hypertension, the relative allele frequency of haptoglobin 1 (0.266) was lower than in the group with non-refractory hypertension (0.385; P<0.05). The relative frequency of haptoglobin 2-2 was 39% in the non-refractory compared with 56% in the refractory group (P<0.05). In the latter group, the relative frequency of haptoglobin 2-2 was highest (75%) in patients requiring medication with four classes of drug. Conclusion: Hypertensive patients with the haptoglobin 2-2 phenotype are at higher risk of developing refractory hypertension than those with other haptoglobin phenotypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)131-136
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Cardiovascular Risk
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 1995


  • Antihypertensive treatment
  • Atherosclerosis
  • Drug resistance
  • Genetics
  • Haptoglobin
  • Hypertension
  • Polymorphism


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