Self-reference refers to clinician revelations about themselves. Theory and research on self-reference are limited by a lack of uniform conceptualizations. This paper discusses two types of self-reference, self-disclosure, and self-involving responses. Included are definitions of each type of self-reference; description of definitional inconsistencies in the literature; discussion of prevalence, functions, and the multidimensional nature of self-reference; and practice implications and research recommendations. The ideas presented herein are intended to prompt researchers, practitioners, and educators to carefully consider the nature, scope, and functions of self-reference, and in doing so, bring greater conceptual and operational clarity to their work.
- Clinician self-reference
- Self-involving responses