Refining the product-process matrix

Sohel Ahmad, Roger G. Schroeder

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

49 Scopus citations


We undertake an empirical study of the well-known product-process matrix using data collected from 128 plants. Our analysis indicates that the relationship between product structure and process structure is significant, but not strong. Furthermore, less than half of the plants operate near the diagonal of the matrix. We found that the off-diagonal plants are using innovative initiatives to overcome the lack of product structure and process structure match, As a result, we propose that a third dimension be added to the product-process matrix that measures how aggressively plants are implementing these innovative initiatives, thereby explaining their off-diagonal behavior.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)103-124
Number of pages22
JournalInternational Journal of Operations and Production Management
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes


  • Efficiency
  • Process design
  • Product structure
  • Trade-offs


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