Is visual representation of an object affected by whether surrounding objects are identical to it, different from it, or absent? To address this question, we tested perceptual priming, visual short-term, and long-term memory for objects presented in isolation or with other objects. Experiment 1 used a priming procedure, where the prime display contained a single face, four identical faces, or four different faces. Subjects identified the gender of a subsequent probe face that either matched or mismatched with one of the prime faces. Priming was stronger when the prime was four identical faces than when it was a single face or four different faces. Experiments 2 and 3 asked subjects to encode four different objects presented on four displays. Holding memory load constant, visual memory was better when each of the four displays contained four duplicates of a single object, than when each display contained a single object. These results suggest that an object's perceptual and memory representations are enhanced when presented with identical objects, revealing redundancy effects in visual processing.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Please address all correspondence to Yuhong V. Jiang, Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, S251 Elliott Hall, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA. E-mail: email@example.com This study was supported by Grant-In-Aid from the University of Minnesota to YVJ. We thank Jen Decker, Sheng He, Anshul Jain, Nancy Kanwisher, Joseph Krummenacher, Tal Makovski, Khena Swallow, Jim Tanaka, and an anonymous reviewer for comments and discussions. Portions of the research in this paper use the FERET database of facial images collected under the FERET program, sponsored by the DOD Counterdrug Technology Development Program Office.
- Perceptual priming
- Redundancy effects
- Visual long-term memory
- Visual short-term memory