Reduction of FODMAPs and amylase-trypsin inhibitors in wheat: A review

Prince G. Boakye, Akua Y. Okyere, George A. Annor

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Consumption of fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) can promote gut health in individuals with a healthy gastrointestinal tract. However, FODMAPs, as well as amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), have been identified as potential triggers of intestinal symptoms in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) patients. Wheat is a major staple worldwide, and hence, accounts for a large proportion of the intake of FODMAPs and ATIs. Thus, this paper aims to provide an overview of the strategies utilized in reducing the levels of FODMAPs and ATIs in wheat.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100117
JournalFood Hydrocolloids for Health
StatePublished - Dec 2023

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 The Author(s)


  • Amylase-trypsin inhibitors (ATIs)
  • Fermentation
  • Genotype
  • Growing environment
  • Wheat


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