Therapeutic practices for multiple myeloma (MM) have evolved, such that novel-agent-based therapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (aPBSCT) is the current standard. Whether cause-specific mortality has changed with time remains unclear. We examined late cause-specific mortality among patients with MM receiving aPBSCT from 1989 to 2014. We conducted a prospective cohort study using participants enrolled in the enrolled in the Blood or Marrow Transplant Survivor Study. We created 3 eras to reflect changing MM therapy: <2000 (pre-thalidomide); 2000-2005 (thalidomide); 2006-2014 (lenalidomide). We used Kaplan-Meier techniques and Cox regression for examining all-cause mortality, and subdistribution hazards models for cause-specific mortality. In total, 1906 patients were followed up for a median of 9.2 years. Conditional on surviving 2 years, the 10-year overall survival was 45%. The 10-year cumulative incidence of myeloma- and non-myeloma-related mortality was 33% and 13%, respectively. Multivariable analysis showed declining MM-specific mortality (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] 2000-2005 = 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.60-1.07; SHR 2006-2014 = 0.46, 95% CI, 0.34-0.62; referent group: <2000), infection-related mortality (SHR 2000-2005 = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.29-0.85; SHR 2006-2014 = 0.35, 95%CI 0.21-0.60; referent group: <2000) and cardiovascular disease-related mortality (SHR 2000-2005 = 0.45, 95% CI 0.20-0.99; SHR 2006-2014 = 0.41, 95% CI 0.18-0.93; referent group: <2000). Although primary disease remains the major cause of late mortality, we observed a significant temporal decline in myeloma-, infection-, and cardiac-related late mortality over the past 25 years.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial disclosure: Supported by the Leukemia Lymphoma Society and by grant U01 CA213140 from the National Institutes of Health. Funding sources did not have any role in the design, methods, data collection, analysis and preparation of this article.
Conflicts of Interest Statement: S.G. reports research funding from Carevive and PackHealth, and honoraria from Carevive and OncLive. L.J.C. reports research funding from Amgen and Janssen, and received honoraria from Karyopharm, Celgene, Amgen, Janssen, and Sanofi.
© 2021 The American Society for Transplantation and Cellular Therapy
- Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation
- Late mortality
- Multiple myeloma
- Prospective Studies
- Multiple Myeloma/therapy
- Transplantation, Autologous
- Bone Marrow
- Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
- Journal Article
- Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural