Reducing Compaction Temperature of Asphalt Mixtures by GNP Modification and Aggregate Packing Optimization

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Compaction of hot mix asphalt (HMA) requires high temperatures in the range of 125 to 145 °C to ensure the fluidity of asphalt binder and, therefore, the workability of asphalt mixtures. The high temperatures are associated with high energy consumption, and higher NOx emissions, and can also accelerate the aging of asphalt binders. In previous research, the authors have developed two approaches for improving the compactability of asphalt mixtures: (1) addition of Graphite Nanoplatelets (GNPs), and (2) optimizing aggregate packing. This research explores the effects of these two approaches, and the combination of them, on reducing compaction temperatures while the production temperature is kept at the traditional levels. A reduction in compaction temperatures is desired for prolonging the paving window, extending the hauling distance, reducing the energy consumption for reheating, and for reducing the number of repairs and their negative environmental and safety effects, by improving the durability of the mixtures. A Superpave asphalt mixture was chosen as the control mixture. Three modified mixtures were designed, respectively, by (1) adding 6% GNP by the weight of binder, (2) optimizing aggregate packing, and (3) combining the two previous approaches. Gyratory compaction tests were performed on the four mixtures at two compaction temperatures: 135 °C (the compaction temperature of the control mixture) and 95 °C. A method was proposed based on the gyratory compaction to estimate the compaction temperature of the mixtures. The results show that all the three methods increase the compactability of mixtures and thus significantly reduce the compaction temperatures. Method 3 (combining GNP modification and aggregate packing optimization) has the most significant effect, followed by method 1 (GNP modification), and method 2 (aggregate packing optimization).

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6060
Issue number17
StatePublished - Sep 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support provided by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (grant: 1003325 WO#106) and the University of Minnesota, Center for Transportation Studies (grant: CTS #2018076).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.


  • Graphite Nanoplatelets (GNP)
  • aggregate packing
  • asphalt mixture
  • compaction
  • temperature reduction


Dive into the research topics of 'Reducing Compaction Temperature of Asphalt Mixtures by GNP Modification and Aggregate Packing Optimization'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this