Background: Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) have deficiencies in circulating and sinonasal levels of the inactive form of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25VD3). Moreover, CRSwNP patients have reduced epithelial cell-specific expression of 1α-hydroxylase; the enzyme responsible for the conversion of 25VD3 to its metabolically active form, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25VD3). The objective of this work was to determine the impact of sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase levels combined from all cellular sources on subjective disease severity and to identify variables influencing its expression. Methods: Blood and sinus tissue explants were collected at the time of surgery from control, chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP), CRSwNP, and allergic fungal rhinosinusitis (AFRS) patients. 1α-Hydroxylase was measured by immunostaining with flow cytometric analysis. Subjective disease severity was measured by the 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22). 1,25VD3 and 25VD3 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Patients with CRSwNP or AFRS have reduced 1α-hydroxylase and 1,25VD3 compared to controls or CRSsNP. Circulating 1,25VD3 levels were the same among all groups. No differences in sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase or 1,25VD3 were found between CRSwNP and AFRS. Gender, age, race, atopy, and systemic 25VD3 had no impact on sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase levels in any group. However, CRSwNP patients with asthma had higher 1α-hydroxylase than those without asthma. Total 1α-hydroxylase levels inversely correlated with SNOT-22 in CRSwNP, but not CRSsNP. Conclusion: Patients with CRSwNP and AFRS both have reduced sinonasal 1α-hydroxylase and 1,25VD3 compared to controls or CRSsNP. Reductions in intracellular 1α-hydroxylase combined from all sinonasal cell types were associated with more severe subjective disease severity in CRSwNP.
- Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis
- Nasal polyp
- Vitamin D