Reduced nicotine exposure and abstinence outcome in two nicotine fading methods

Paul G. McGovern, Harry A Lando

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14 Scopus citations


Two methods of nicotine fading as a smoking cessation preparation technique were compared. A brand-switching procedure and a three-stage set of "Nicotine Faders" graduated filters were the preparation strategies. Both methods implemented a putative 30-50-80% nicotine exposure reduction schedule in three weekly phases. There were a total of 110 study participants (57 in brand switching) enrolled in eight clinic groups. Results indicated that at the 80% reduction level, meaningful reductions in nicotine (measured by its metabolite cotinine) and carbon monoxide (CO) exposure were measurable with both nicotine fading procedures. Overall pooled nicotine and CO exposure drops from baselines of 48.2% and 35.5%, respectively, were recorded. The abstinence outcome measures (pooled 1-year abstinence prevalence = 30.9%) were not significantly different between the two preparation strategies. Trends in nicotine and CO exposure drops, and abstinence outcome measures, however, were consistently in favor of the graduated filters. Potential advantages of filters in the context of a preparation-for-quitting strategy were suggested.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11-20
Number of pages10
JournalAddictive Behaviors
Issue number1-2
StatePublished - 1991

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Reprint requests should be sent to Paul G. McGovern, Ph.D., Division of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Stadium Gate 20, 611 Beacon Street SE., Minneapolis, MN 55455. This work was supported by Grant No. R43 DA04571 from the National Institutes of Health and Grant No. ROl DA03950 from the National Institute on Drug Abuse.


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