Aims To examine the effects of reduced nicotine cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, dependence and abstinence. Design Randomized, parallel arm, semi-blinded study. Setting University of Minnesota Tobacco Use Research Center. Interventions Six weeks of: (i) 0.05 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; (ii) 0.3 mg nicotine yield cigarettes; or (iii) 4 mg nicotine lozenge; 6 weeks of follow-up. Measurements Compensatory smoking behavior, biomarkers of exposure, tobacco dependence, tobacco withdrawal and abstinence rate. Findings Unlike the 0.3 mg cigarettes, 0.05 mg cigarettes were not associated with compensatory smoking behaviors. Furthermore, the 0.05 mg cigarettes and nicotine lozenge were associated with reduced carcinogen exposure, nicotine dependence and product withdrawal scores. The 0.05 mg cigarette was associated with greater relief of withdrawal from usual brand cigarettes than the nicotine lozenge. The 0.05 mg cigarette led to a significantly higher rate of cessation than the 0.3 mg cigarette and a similar rate as nicotine lozenge. Conclusion The 0.05 mg nicotine yield cigarettes may be a tobacco product that can facilitate cessation; however, future research is clearly needed to support these preliminary findings.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-355
Number of pages13
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2010


  • Biomarkers of exposure
  • Compensatory smoking
  • Nicotine dependence
  • Reduced nicotine cigarettes
  • Tobacco cessation
  • Tobacco withdrawal

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