Redirecting walking and driving for natural navigation in immersive virtual environments

Gerd Bruder, Victoria Interrante, Lane Phillips, Frank Steinicke

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


Walking is the most natural form of locomotion for humans, and real walking interfaces have demonstrated their benefits for several navigation tasks. With recently proposed redirection techniques it becomes possible to overcome space limitations as imposed by tracking sensors or laboratory setups, and, theoretically, it is now possible to walk through arbitrarily large virtual environments. However, walking as sole locomotion technique has drawbacks, in particular, for long distances, such that even in the real world we tend to support walking with passive or active transportation for longerdistance travel. In this article we show that concepts from the field of redirected walking can be applied to movements with transportation devices. We conducted psychophysical experiments to determine perceptual detection thresholds for redirected driving, and set these in relation to results from redirected walking. We show that redirected walkinganddriving approaches can easily be realized in immersive virtual reality laboratories, e. g., with electric wheelchairs, and show that such systems can combine advantages of real walking in confined spaces with benefits of using vehiclebased selfmotion for longerdistance travel.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6165134
Pages (from-to)538-545
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2012

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported in part by NSF grant IIS-0713587, and by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG 29160962). We thank the Crytek GmbH for the CryEngine 3, with which the audiovisual stimuli were generated.


  • Redirected walking
  • natural locomotion
  • redirected driving
  • self-motion perception


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