The order Cypriniformes is the most diverse clade of freshwater fishes and is natively distributed on all continents except South America, Australia, and Antarctica. Despite the diversity of the group and the fundamental importance of these species in both ecosystems and human culture, relatively little has been known about their relationships relative to their diversity. In recent years, with an international effort investigating the systematics of the group, more information as to their genealogical relationships has emerged and species discovery and their descriptions have increased. One of the more interesting aspects of this group has been a traditional lack of understanding of the relationships of the families, subfamilies, and other formally or informally identified groups. Historical studies have largely focused on smaller groups of species or genera. Because of the diversity of this group and previously published whole mitochondrial genome evidence for relationships of major clades in the order, this clade serves as an excellent group to investigate the congruence between relationships reconstructed for major clades with whole mitogenome data and those inferred from a series of nuclear gene sequences. As descent has resulted in only one tree of life, do the phylogenetic relationships of these major clades converge on similar topologies using the large number of available characters through this suite of nuclear genes and previously published mitochondrial genomes? In this study we examine the phylogenetic relationships of major clades of Cypriniformes using previously published mitogenomes and four putative single-copy nuclear genes of the same or closely related species. Combined nuclear gene sequences yielded 3810 bp, approximately 26% of the bp found in a single mitogenome; however homoplasy in the nuclear genes was measurably less than that observed in mitochondrial sequences. Relationships of taxa and major clades derived from analyses of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences were nearly identical and both received high support values. While some differences of individual gene trees did exist for species, it is predicted that these differences will be minimized with increased taxon sampling in future analyses.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported in part by USA NSF awards EF 0431326 (Mayden, Wood), EF 0431259 (Bart), and EF 0431132 (Simons), and Saint Louis University. We also wish to thank the following persons for assistance with laboratory work: Charles Bell, Megan Harbison (TU), Ashley Schultze, Brett Nagle, Zach Lechner (UM), and Leah Schneider (SLU). Appendix A
- Mitochondrial genes
- Nuclear genes
- Phylogeny reconstruction