Rear Vehicle Tracking on a Smart E-Scooter

Hamidreza Alai, Woongsun Jeon, Lee Alexander, Rajesh Rajamani

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


This paper develops an active sensing system for protection of an e-scooter from car-scooter collisions. The objective is to track the trajectories of cars behind the e-scooter and predict any real-time danger to the e-scooter. If the danger of being hit by a car is predicted, then a loud horn-like audio warning is sounded to alert the car driver to the presence of the scooter. A low-cost single-beam laser sensor is chosen for measuring the positions of cars behind the scooter. The sensor is mounted on a stepper motor and the region behind the scooter is scanned to detect vehicles. Once a vehicle is detected, its trajectory is tracked in real-time by using feedback control to focus the orientation of the laser sensor in real-time so as to make measurements of the right front corner of the vehicle. A nonlinear vehicle model and a nonlinear observer are used to estimate the trajectory variables of the tracked car. The estimated states are used in a receding horizon controller that controls the real-time position of the laser sensor to focus on the vehicle. The developed system is implemented on a Ninebot e-scooter platform. Simulation results with multiple vehicle maneuvers show that the closed-loop system is able to accurately track trajectories of rear vehicles that can pose a danger to the e-scooter.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publication2023 American Control Conference, ACC 2023
PublisherInstitute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc.
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798350328066
StatePublished - 2023
Event2023 American Control Conference, ACC 2023 - San Diego, United States
Duration: May 31 2023Jun 2 2023

Publication series

Name2023 American Control Conference (ACC)


Conference2023 American Control Conference, ACC 2023
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2023 American Automatic Control Council.


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