Realized tumor to normal ratios in hepatocellular carcinoma patients undergoing transarterial radioembolization: a retrospective evaluation

Shamar Young, Ting Chen, Siobhan Flanagan, Jafar Golzarian, Tina Sanghvi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVES: To determine the realized tumor to normal ratios (TNRs) in patients undergoing radiation segmentectomies (RS); determine the relationship between TNRs and particle load in transarterial radioembolization (TARE).

METHODS: In total, 148 patients who underwent 184 TARE procedures for hepatocellular carcinoma were evaluated. Post treatment SPECT CT bremsstrahlung imaging was analyzed utilizing Simplicit90y™ to determine realized TNR. A model which normalized activity across all RS treatments to a level that would achieve 400 Gy by unicompartmental dosing was created to determine the affect realized TNR would have on tumor absorbed dose.

RESULTS: The mean TNR in the setting of RS was 2.88 ± 1.60 and was higher for glass as compared to resin microspheres (3.07 ± 1.68 vs 2.24 ± 1.21, p = 0.01). The TNR was significantly greater in the RS as compared to the lobar deliveries (2.88 ± 1.60 vs 2.16 ± 1.12, p < 0.01). When normalizing the activity of RS treatments to the level required to achieve 400 Gy by unicompartmental calculations, there was found to be significant differences in the predicted tumor absorbed dose when separated by the median tumor dose (601.2 ± 133.3 vs 1146.9 ± 297.5, p < 0.01) or median realized TNR (1119.2 ± 341 Gy vs 635.7 ± 160.2 Gy, p < 0.01). Particle load was found to be associated with TNR on univariate (p < 0.01) and multivariate (p < 0.01) analysis.

CONCLUSION: Significant TNRs are seen in RS and perhaps argue for the use of multi-compartmental dosimetry techniques in this setting and particle load may affect TNR.

KEY POINTS: • Tumor to normal ratios were significantly higher in radiation segmentectomies than lobar deliveries. • Tumor to normal ratios were significantly higher when utilizing glass, as compared to resin microspheres. • When creating a model that prescribed the activity required to reach 400 Gy by MIRD, realized tumor dose varied significantly in radiation segmentectomies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4160-4167
Number of pages8
JournalEuropean Radiology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to European Society of Radiology.


  • Dosimetry
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
  • Tumor to normal ratio
  • Yttrium-90
  • Liver Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging
  • Microspheres
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular/diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Embolization, Therapeutic
  • Yttrium Radioisotopes/therapeutic use

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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