Real-time implementation of a dual-mode ultrasound array system: In vivo results

Andrew J. Casper, Dalong Liu, John R. Ballard, Emad S. Ebbini

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


A real-time dual-mode ultrasound array (DMUA) system for imaging and therapy is described. The system utilizes a concave (40-mm radius of curvature) 3.5 MHz, 32 element array, and modular multichannel transmitter/receiver. The system is capable of operating in a variety of imaging and therapy modes (on transmit) and continuous receive on all array elements even during high-power operation. A signal chain consisting of field-programmable gate arrays and graphical processing units is used to enable real time, software-defined beamforming and image formation. Imaging data, from quality assurance phantoms as well as in vivo small- and large-animal models, are presented and discussed. Corresponding images obtained using a temporally-synchronized and spatially-aligned diagnostic probe confirm the DMUA's ability to form anatomically-correct images with sufficient contrast in an extended field of view around its geometric center. In addition, high-frame rate DMUA data also demonstrate the feasibility of detection and localization of echo changes indicative of cavitation and/or tissue boiling during high-intensity focused ultrasound exposures with 45-50 dB dynamic range. The results also show that the axial and lateral resolution of the DMUA are consistent with its $f \rm number and bandwidth with well-behaved speckle cell characteristics. These results point the way to a theranostic DMUA system capable of quantitative imaging of tissue property changes with high specificity to lesion formation using focused ultrasound.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number6517886
Pages (from-to)2751-2759
Number of pages9
JournalIEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2013


  • Beamforming
  • Image-guided surgery
  • Phased arrays
  • Therapeutic ultrasound
  • Ultrasound imaging


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