Real-time facial emotion recognition deficits across the psychosis spectrum: A B-SNIP Study

Leah H. Rubin, Jiaxu Han, Jennifer M. Coughlin, S. Kristian Hill, Jeffrey R. Bishop, Carol A. Tamminga, Brett A. Clementz, Godfrey D. Pearlson, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Elliot S. Gershon, Keri J. Heilman, Stephen W. Porges, John A. Sweeney, Sarah Keedy

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3 Scopus citations


Affective and non-affective psychotic disorders are associated with variable levels of impairment in affective processing, but this domain typically has been examined via presentation of static facial images. We compared performance on a dynamic facial expression identification task across six emotions (sad, fear, surprise, disgust, anger, happy) in individuals with psychotic disorders (bipolar with psychotic features [PBD] = 113, schizoaffective [SAD] = 163, schizophrenia [SZ] = 181) and healthy controls (HC; n = 236) derived from the Bipolar-Schizophrenia Network on Intermediate Phenotypes (B-SNIP). These same individuals with psychotic disorders were also grouped by B-SNIP-derived Biotype (Biotype 1 [B1] = 115, Biotype 2 [B2] = 132, Biotype 3 [B3] = 158), derived from a cluster analysis applied to a large biomarker panel that did not include the current data. Irrespective of the depicted emotion, groups differed in accuracy of emotion identification (P < 0.0001). The SZ group demonstrated lower accuracy versus HC and PBD groups; the SAD group was less accurate than the HC group (Ps < 0.02). Similar overall group differences were evident in speed of identifying emotional expressions. Controlling for general cognitive ability did not eliminate most group differences on accuracy but eliminated almost all group differences on reaction time for emotion identification. Results from the Biotype groups indicated that B1 and B2 had more severe deficits in emotion recognition than HC and B3, meanwhile B3 did not show significant deficits. In sum, this characterization of facial emotion recognition deficits adds to our emerging understanding of social/emotional deficits across the psychosis spectrum.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)489-499
Number of pages11
JournalSchizophrenia Research
StatePublished - May 2022

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© 2021 Elsevier B.V.


  • Bipolar disorder with psychotic features
  • Emotion
  • Schizoaffective disorder
  • Schizophrenia


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