Reactivity of epicatechin in aqueous glycine and glucose Maillard reaction models: Quenching of C 2, C 3, and C 4 sugar fragments

Vandana M. Totlani, Devin G. Peterson

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96 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mechanisms of how epicatechin alters the pathways of the Maillard reaction were investigated. Carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 labeling studies were utilized to define the reactivity of epicatechin with glucose, glycine, and/or reaction products in an aqueous model (pH 7, 125°C for 30 min) via GC, GC/MS and HPLC/MS analysis. Quantification of the volatile reaction product isotopomers by GC/MS from a 1:1 labeled to unlabeled glucose (carbohydrate module labeling technique) plus glycine model system indicated the formation of 2,3-butanedione and acetol were primarily formed via intact C 4 and C 3 sugar fragments, whereas pyrazine, methylpyrazine, 2,5-dimethylpyrazine, 2,3,5-trimethylpyrazine, and cyclotene were primarily formed via intact C 2/C 2, C 2/C 3, C 3/C 3, C 3/C 3, and C 3/C 3 sugar fragment pairs, respectively. The formation of these seven compounds was also reported by GC analysis to be dramatically inhibited when epicatechin was added to the glucose/glycine model system (observed 9-113-fold reduction). HPLC/MS analysis of both the glucose-labeled and glycine-labeled model systems with and without epicatechin indicated that epicatechin reacted directly with C 2, C 3, and C 4 sugar fragments, while epicatechin did not report any direct reactivity with glycine. In conclusion, the quenching of sugar fragmentation products via epicatechin was correlated with the observed inhibition on volatile compound formation when epicatechin was added to a glucose/glycine aqueous reaction model system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4130-4135
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of agricultural and food chemistry
Volume53
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - May 18 2005

Keywords

  • Epicatechin
  • Inhibit
  • Maillard reaction
  • Nonenzymatic browning
  • Polyphenolic
  • Reactivity
  • Sugar fragments

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