Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research (RULER): the RULER Statement

Trudy Mallinson, Allan J. Kozlowski, Mark V. Johnston, Jennifer Weaver, Lauren Terhorst, Namrata Grampurohit, Shannon Juengst, Linda Ehrlich-Jones, Allen W. Heinemann, John Melvin, Pallavi Sood, Ann Van de Winckel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


The application of Rasch Measurement (RM) Theory to rehabilitation assessments has proliferated in recent years. RM Theory helps design and refine assessments so that items reflect a unidimensional construct in an equal interval metric that distinguishes among persons of different abilities in a manner that is consistent with the underlying trait. Rapid growth of RM in rehabilitation assessment studies has led to inconsistent results reporting. Clear, consistent, transparent reporting of RM Theory results is important for advancing rehabilitation science and practice based on precise measures. Precise measures, in turn, provide researchers, practitioners, patients, and other stakeholders with tools for effective decision making. The goal of this Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research (RULER: Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research) is to provide peer-reviewed, evidence-based, transparent, and consistent recommendations for reporting studies that apply RM Theory in a rehabilitation context. The purpose of the guideline is to ensure that authors, reviewers, and editors have uniform expectations about how to write and evaluate research on rehabilitation outcome assessments. A task force of rehabilitation researchers, clinicians, and editors met regularly between November 2018 and August 2020 to identify the need for the guideline, develop an organizing framework, identify content areas, and develop the recommendations. This RULER: Rasch Reporting Guideline for Rehabilitation Research statement includes the organizing framework and a checklist of 59 recommendations. The guideline is supported by an Explanation and Elaboration article that provides more detail about the framework and recommendations in the checklist. A glossary of key terms and a recommended iterations table are provided in supplemental online only materials.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1477-1486
Number of pages10
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Dr Mallinson and Ms Weaver report funding from the US Department of Defense under grant JW150040 (Dr Theresa Bender-Pape, PI).

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine


  • Guideline
  • Outcome assessment, health care
  • Rehabilitation
  • Treatment outcome


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