Raptor Toxicology

Patrick T Redig, Lori R. Arent

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


Birds of prey have demonstrated the negative impact that toxic agents can cause on animal populations and ecosystem dynamics. Lead, cholinesterase inhibitors (eg, organophosphates, carbamates), and anticoagulant rodenticides (eg, brodifacoum) are the most common toxic agents that currently affect the health of wild birds of prey in the United States. For raptors held in captivity, the list of toxic agents expands and includes toxic inhalants such as carbon monoxide and polytetrafluoroethylene. This article provides diagnostic and treatment guidelines for the toxic agents discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-282
Number of pages22
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 2008


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