The high luminosity LHC (HL-LHC or Phase-II) is expected to increase the instantaneous luminosity of the LHC by a factor of about five, delivering fb 1 per year between 2025 and 2035. Under these conditions the performance degradation of detectors due to integrated radiation dose/fluence will need to be addressed. The CMS collaboration is planning to upgrade many detector components, including the forward calorimeters. The replacement for the existing endcap preshower, electromagnetic and hadronic calorimeters is called the High Granularity Calorimeter (HGCAL) and it will be realized as a sampling calorimeter, including 40 layers of silicon detectors totalling 600m2. The sensors will be realized as pad detectors with cell size between 0.5 and 1.0 cm2 and an active thickness between 100 μm and 300 μm depending on their location in the endcaps. The thinner sensors will be used in the highest radiation environment. For an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb 1, the electromagnetic calorimeter will have to sustain a maximum integrated dose of 1.5MGy and neutron fluences of 1:01016 neq/cm2. A tolerance study after neutron irradiation of 300 μm, 200 μm, 100 μm and 50 μm n-on-p and p-on-n silicon pads irradiated to fluences up to 1:61016 neq/cm2 is presented. The main properties of these diodes have been studied before and after irradiation: leakage current, capacitance, charge collection efficiency with laser and sensitivity to minimum ionizing particles with radioactive source (90Sr). The results show a good performance even after the most extreme irradiation.
- Photon detectors for UV, visible and IR photons (solid-state) (PIN diodes, APDs, Si-PMTs, G-APDs, CCDs, EBCCDs, EMCCDs etc)
- Radiation-hard detectors