Introduction: Racial and socioeconomic disparities in health access and outcomes for many conditions are well known. However, for time-sensitive high-acuity diseases such as traumatic injuries, disparities in access and outcomes should be significantly diminished. Our primary objective was to characterize racial disparities across majority, mixed-race, and minority hospitals for African American (AA) versus white males with high-grade splenic injuries. Methods: Data from the National Trauma Data Bank was utilized from 2007 to 2015. A total of 24 855 AA or white males with high-grade splenic injuries were included. Multilevel mixed effects regression analysis was used to evaluate disparities in outcomes and resource allocation. Results: Mortality was significantly higher for AA males at mixed-race (odds ratio [OR] 1.6; 95% CI 1.3-2.1; P < .001) and minority (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.5-3.0; P < .001) hospitals, but not at majority hospitals. At minority hospitals, AA males were significantly less likely to be admitted to the intensive care unit (OR 0.7; 95% CI 0.49-0.97; P = .04) and experienced a significantly longer time to surgery (IRR 1.5; P = .02). Minority hospitals were significantly more likely to have failures from angiographic embolization requiring operative intervention (OR 2.2; P = .009). At both types of nonmajority hospitals, AA males with penetrating injuries were more likely to be managed with angiography (mixed-race hospitals: OR 1.7; P = .046 vs minority hospitals: OR 1.6; P = .08). Discussion: While multiple studies have shown that minority hospitals have increased mortality compared to majority hospitals, this study found this disparity only existed for AAs.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: Mark R. Hemmila receives support from Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan and Blue Care Network (a nonprofit mutual company) for conduct of The Michigan Trauma Quality Improvement Program with a Collaborative Quality Initiatives grant. This research was funded by a grant awarded to CJT from the University of Minnesota’s Center for Healthy
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