Racial disparities and socioeconomic status in men diagnosed with testicular germ cell tumors: A survival analysis

Maxine Sun, Firas Abdollah, Daniel Liberman, Al'A Abdo, Rodolphe Thuret, Zhe Tian, Shahrokh F. Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Paul Perrotte, Pierre I. Karakiewicz

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

62 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Previous reports indicated that African-American men with testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) have more aggressive tumor characteristics and less favorable outcomes than other men. The authors of this report evaluated the effects of race and socioeconomic status (SES) on stage distribution, overall mortality (OM), and cancer-specific mortality (CSM) in men with TGCTs. METHODS: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was used to identify 22,553 men who were diagnosed with TGCTs between 1988 and 2006. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses were generated to predict OM and CSM. Covariates of the analyses included race, SES, age, histologic subtype, disease stage, procedure type, SEER registry, and year of diagnosis. The interaction between race and SES also was examined. RESULTS: Overall, there were 516 African-American men, 21,090 Caucasian men, and 947 men of other races. African-Americans (14.9%) and individuals with low SES (10.7%) had a higher proportion of distant stage disease. CSM and OM rates were significantly higher for African-American patients and for patients who resided in low SES counties. Multivariate analyses revealed that African-American men and men with low SES were more likely to die of OM and CSM relative to Caucasian men (P <.001) and men with high SES (P <.001), respectively. The interaction between race and SES was not significant. CONCLUSIONS: African-American race and low SES appeared to predispose men to more advanced disease stages and to higher OM and CSM rates. These observations may warrant race-specific and/or SES-specific adjustments in the treatment of TGCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4277-4285
Number of pages9
Issue number18
StatePublished - Sep 15 2011


  • disparities
  • oncologic outcome
  • race
  • socioeconomic status
  • testicular cancer


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