Racial and ethnic disparities in coronary, vascular, structural, and congenital heart disease

Cindy L. Grines, Andrew J. Klein, Holly Bauser-Heaton, Mohamad Alkhouli, Neelima Katukuri, Varun Aggarwal, S. Elissa Altin, Wayne B. Batchelor, James C. Blankenship, Foluso Fakorede, Beau Hawkins, Gabriel A. Hernandez, Nkechinyere Ijioma, Britton Keeshan, Jun Li, R. Allen Ligon, Andres Pineda, Yader Sandoval, Michael N. Young

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

17 Scopus citations


Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains the leading cause of death in the United States. However, percutaneous interventional cardiovascular therapies are often underutilized in Blacks, Hispanics, and women and may contribute to excess morbidity and mortality in these vulnerable populations. The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions (SCAI) is committed to reducing racial, ethnic, and sex-based treatment disparities in interventional cardiology patients. Accordingly, each of the SCAI Clinical Interest Councils (coronary, peripheral, structural, and congenital heart disease [CHD]) participated in the development of this whitepaper addressing disparities in diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes in underserved populations. The councils were charged with summarizing the available data on prevalence, treatment, and outcomes and elucidating potential reasons for any disparities. Given the huge changes in racial and ethnic composition by age in the United States (Figure 1), it was difficult to determine disparities in rates of diagnosis and we expected to find some racial differences in prevalence of disease. For example, since the average age of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is 80 years, one may expect 80% of TAVR patients to be non-Hispanic White. Conversely, only 50% of congenital heart interventions would be expected to be performed in non-Hispanic Whites. Finally, we identified opportunities for SCAI to advance clinical care and equity for our patients, regardless of sex, ethnicity, or race.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)277-294
Number of pages18
JournalCatheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Wiley Periodicals LLC.


  • adults
  • congenital heart disease
  • congential heart disease
  • coronary artery disease
  • pediatrics
  • percutaneous coronary intervention
  • peripheral arterial disease
  • structural heart disease intervention


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