Racemic species of sodium ibuprofen: Characterization and polymorphic relationships

Geoff G Z Zhang, Sophia Y L Paspal, Raj Suryanarayanan, David J W Grant

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53 Scopus citations


Racemic and homochiral sodium ibuprofen were characterized by thermal analysis and powder X-ray diffractometry. The melting point phase diagram was constructed and thermodynamic calculation was performed. In contrast to racemic ibuprofen, which is a racemic compound, racemic sodium ibuprofen forms both a racemic conglomerate (termed the γ-form) as well as two polymorphic racemic compounds, α and β, which are less stable monotropes. From the supercooled liquid, α and β crystallized along with the original γ-form. Forms α and β are "enantiotropically related" with a transition temperature between 75° and 113°C, but can be considered to be metastable monotropes of the racemic conglomerate, the stable γ-form.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1356-1366
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 1 2003

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the Graduate School of the University of Minnesota for a doctoral dissertation fellowship for G. G. Z. Zhang.

Copyright 2017 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.


  • Conglomerate
  • Differential scanning calorimetry
  • Enantiomer
  • Enantiotropy
  • Monotropy
  • Phase diagram
  • Polymorphism
  • Powder X-ray diffractometry
  • Racemic compound
  • Sodium ibuprofen


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