Quantitative susceptibility mapping detects neovascularization of the epiphyseal cartilage after ischemic injury in a piglet model of legg-calvé-perthes disease

Casey P Johnson, Luning Wang, Ferenc Toth, Olumide Aruwajoye, Brooke Kirkham, Cathy S Carlson, Harry K.W. Kim, Jutta M Ellermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder thought to be caused by disruption of blood supply to the developing femoral head. There is potential for imaging to help assess revascularization of the femoral head. Purpose: To investigate whether quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the developing femoral head. Study Type: Prospective. Animal Model: Right femoral head ischemia was surgically induced in 6-week-old male piglets. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours (n = 3) or 4 weeks (n = 7) following surgery, and the operated and contralateral control femoral heads were harvested for ex vivo MRI. Field Strength/Sequence: Preclinical 9.4T MRI to acquire susceptibility-weighted 3D gradient echo (GRE) images with 0.1 mm isotropic spatial resolution. Assessment: The 3D GRE images were used to manually segment the cartilage overlying the femoral head and were subsequently postprocessed using QSM. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were measured and compared between operated and control femoral heads at each timepoint. Maximum intensity projections of the QSM images were subjectively assessed to identity differences in cartilage canal appearance, location, and density. Statistical Tests: Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used (P < 0.008 considered significant). Results: Increased vascularity of the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury was clearly identified using QSM. No changes were detected 48 hours after surgery. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were all increased in the operated vs. control femoral heads 4 weeks after surgery (P = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.001, respectively). Qualitatively, the increase in vessel density at 4 weeks was due to the formation of new vessels that were organized in a brush-like orientation in the epiphyseal cartilage, consistent with the histological appearance of neovascularization. Data Conclusion: QSM can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the femoral head. Level of Evidence: 1. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:106–113.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)106-113
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

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Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease
Growth Plate
Thigh
Wounds and Injuries
Cartilage
Animal Rights
Hip
Ischemia
Animal Models
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • cartilage canal
  • epiphyseal cartilage
  • femoral head
  • neovascularization
  • quantitative susceptibility mapping
  • susceptibility-weighted imaging

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article

Cite this

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title = "Quantitative susceptibility mapping detects neovascularization of the epiphyseal cartilage after ischemic injury in a piglet model of legg-calv{\'e}-perthes disease",
abstract = "Background: Legg-Calv{\'e}-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder thought to be caused by disruption of blood supply to the developing femoral head. There is potential for imaging to help assess revascularization of the femoral head. Purpose: To investigate whether quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the developing femoral head. Study Type: Prospective. Animal Model: Right femoral head ischemia was surgically induced in 6-week-old male piglets. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours (n = 3) or 4 weeks (n = 7) following surgery, and the operated and contralateral control femoral heads were harvested for ex vivo MRI. Field Strength/Sequence: Preclinical 9.4T MRI to acquire susceptibility-weighted 3D gradient echo (GRE) images with 0.1 mm isotropic spatial resolution. Assessment: The 3D GRE images were used to manually segment the cartilage overlying the femoral head and were subsequently postprocessed using QSM. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were measured and compared between operated and control femoral heads at each timepoint. Maximum intensity projections of the QSM images were subjectively assessed to identity differences in cartilage canal appearance, location, and density. Statistical Tests: Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used (P < 0.008 considered significant). Results: Increased vascularity of the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury was clearly identified using QSM. No changes were detected 48 hours after surgery. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were all increased in the operated vs. control femoral heads 4 weeks after surgery (P = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.001, respectively). Qualitatively, the increase in vessel density at 4 weeks was due to the formation of new vessels that were organized in a brush-like orientation in the epiphyseal cartilage, consistent with the histological appearance of neovascularization. Data Conclusion: QSM can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the femoral head. Level of Evidence: 1. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:106–113.",
keywords = "cartilage canal, epiphyseal cartilage, femoral head, neovascularization, quantitative susceptibility mapping, susceptibility-weighted imaging",
author = "Johnson, {Casey P} and Luning Wang and Ferenc Toth and Olumide Aruwajoye and Brooke Kirkham and Carlson, {Cathy S} and Kim, {Harry K.W.} and Ellermann, {Jutta M}",
year = "2019",
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language = "English (US)",
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T1 - Quantitative susceptibility mapping detects neovascularization of the epiphyseal cartilage after ischemic injury in a piglet model of legg-calvé-perthes disease

AU - Johnson, Casey P

AU - Wang, Luning

AU - Toth, Ferenc

AU - Aruwajoye, Olumide

AU - Kirkham, Brooke

AU - Carlson, Cathy S

AU - Kim, Harry K.W.

AU - Ellermann, Jutta M

PY - 2019/7/1

Y1 - 2019/7/1

N2 - Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder thought to be caused by disruption of blood supply to the developing femoral head. There is potential for imaging to help assess revascularization of the femoral head. Purpose: To investigate whether quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the developing femoral head. Study Type: Prospective. Animal Model: Right femoral head ischemia was surgically induced in 6-week-old male piglets. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours (n = 3) or 4 weeks (n = 7) following surgery, and the operated and contralateral control femoral heads were harvested for ex vivo MRI. Field Strength/Sequence: Preclinical 9.4T MRI to acquire susceptibility-weighted 3D gradient echo (GRE) images with 0.1 mm isotropic spatial resolution. Assessment: The 3D GRE images were used to manually segment the cartilage overlying the femoral head and were subsequently postprocessed using QSM. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were measured and compared between operated and control femoral heads at each timepoint. Maximum intensity projections of the QSM images were subjectively assessed to identity differences in cartilage canal appearance, location, and density. Statistical Tests: Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used (P < 0.008 considered significant). Results: Increased vascularity of the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury was clearly identified using QSM. No changes were detected 48 hours after surgery. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were all increased in the operated vs. control femoral heads 4 weeks after surgery (P = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.001, respectively). Qualitatively, the increase in vessel density at 4 weeks was due to the formation of new vessels that were organized in a brush-like orientation in the epiphyseal cartilage, consistent with the histological appearance of neovascularization. Data Conclusion: QSM can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the femoral head. Level of Evidence: 1. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:106–113.

AB - Background: Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease (LCPD) is a childhood hip disorder thought to be caused by disruption of blood supply to the developing femoral head. There is potential for imaging to help assess revascularization of the femoral head. Purpose: To investigate whether quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the developing femoral head. Study Type: Prospective. Animal Model: Right femoral head ischemia was surgically induced in 6-week-old male piglets. The animals were sacrificed 48 hours (n = 3) or 4 weeks (n = 7) following surgery, and the operated and contralateral control femoral heads were harvested for ex vivo MRI. Field Strength/Sequence: Preclinical 9.4T MRI to acquire susceptibility-weighted 3D gradient echo (GRE) images with 0.1 mm isotropic spatial resolution. Assessment: The 3D GRE images were used to manually segment the cartilage overlying the femoral head and were subsequently postprocessed using QSM. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were measured and compared between operated and control femoral heads at each timepoint. Maximum intensity projections of the QSM images were subjectively assessed to identity differences in cartilage canal appearance, location, and density. Statistical Tests: Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used (P < 0.008 considered significant). Results: Increased vascularity of the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury was clearly identified using QSM. No changes were detected 48 hours after surgery. Vessel volume, cartilage volume, and vessel density were all increased in the operated vs. control femoral heads 4 weeks after surgery (P = 0.001, 0.002, and 0.001, respectively). Qualitatively, the increase in vessel density at 4 weeks was due to the formation of new vessels that were organized in a brush-like orientation in the epiphyseal cartilage, consistent with the histological appearance of neovascularization. Data Conclusion: QSM can detect neovascularization in the epiphyseal cartilage following ischemic injury to the femoral head. Level of Evidence: 1. Technical Efficacy: Stage 1. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2019;50:106–113.

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KW - epiphyseal cartilage

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KW - quantitative susceptibility mapping

KW - susceptibility-weighted imaging

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