We performed large-scale mRNA expression profiling using an Affymetrix GeneChip to study Arabidopsis responses to the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. The interactions were compatible (virulent bacteria) or incompatible (avirulent bacteria), including a nonhost interaction and interactions mediated by two different avirulence gene-resistance (R) gene combinations. Approximately 2000 of the ∼8000 genes monitored showed reproducible significant expression level changes in at least one of the interactions. Analysis of biological variation suggested that the system behavior of the plant response in an incompatible interaction was robust but that of a compatible interaction was not. A large part of the difference between incompatible and compatible interactions can be explained quantitatively. Despite high similarity between responses mediated by the R genes RPS2 and RPM1 in wild-type plants, RPS2-mediated responses were strongly suppressed by the ndr1 mutation and the NahG transgene, whereas RPM1-mediated responses were not. This finding is consistent with the resistance phenotypes of these plants. We propose a simple quantitative model with a saturating response curve that approximates the overall behavior of this plant-pathogen system.