Quantitation of the Minor Tobacco Alkaloids Nornicotine, Anatabine, and Anabasine in Smokers' Urine by High Throughput Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Linda B. Von Weymarn, Nicole M. Thomson, Eric C. Donny, Dorothy K. Hatsukami, Sharon E. Murphy

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4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Nicotine is the most abundant alkaloid in tobacco accounting for 95% of the alkaloid content. There are also several minor tobacco alkaloids; among these are nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine. We developed and applied a 96 well plate-based capillary LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine in urine. The method was validated with regard to accuracy and precision. Anabasine was quantifiable to low levels with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.2 ng/mL even when nicotine, which is isobaric, is present at concentrations >2500-fold higher than anabasine. This attribute of the method is important since anatabine and anabasine in urine have been proposed as biomarkers of tobacco use for individuals using nicotine replacement therapies. In the present study, we analyzed the three minor tobacco alkaloids in urine from 827 smokers with a wide range of tobacco exposures. Nornicotine (LOQ 0.6 ng/mL) was detected in all samples, and anatabine (LOQ, 0.15 ng/mL) and anabasine were detected in 97.7% of the samples. The median urinary concentrations of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine were 98.9, 4.02, and 5.53 ng/mL. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) were well correlated with anatabine (r2 = 0.714) and anabasine (r2 = 0.760). TNE was most highly correlated with nornicotine, which is also a metabolite of nicotine. Urine samples from a subset of subjects (n = 110) were analyzed for the presence of glucuronide conjugates by quantifying any increase in anatabine and anabasine concentrations after β-glucuronidase treatment. The median ratio of the glucuronidated to free anatabine was 0.74 (range, 0.1 to 10.9), and the median ratio of glucuronidated to free anabasine was 0.3 (range, 0.1 to 2.9). To our knowledge, this is the largest population of smokers for whom the urinary concentrations of these three tobacco alkaloids has been reported.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)390-397
Number of pages8
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 21 2016

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nornicotine
Anabasine
Tobacco
Liquid chromatography
Alkaloids
Liquid Chromatography
Mass spectrometry
Mass Spectrometry
Throughput
Urine
Nicotine
anatabine

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@article{077bf21f7f21401395db72a83d46c727,
title = "Quantitation of the Minor Tobacco Alkaloids Nornicotine, Anatabine, and Anabasine in Smokers' Urine by High Throughput Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry",
abstract = "Nicotine is the most abundant alkaloid in tobacco accounting for 95{\%} of the alkaloid content. There are also several minor tobacco alkaloids; among these are nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine. We developed and applied a 96 well plate-based capillary LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine in urine. The method was validated with regard to accuracy and precision. Anabasine was quantifiable to low levels with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.2 ng/mL even when nicotine, which is isobaric, is present at concentrations >2500-fold higher than anabasine. This attribute of the method is important since anatabine and anabasine in urine have been proposed as biomarkers of tobacco use for individuals using nicotine replacement therapies. In the present study, we analyzed the three minor tobacco alkaloids in urine from 827 smokers with a wide range of tobacco exposures. Nornicotine (LOQ 0.6 ng/mL) was detected in all samples, and anatabine (LOQ, 0.15 ng/mL) and anabasine were detected in 97.7{\%} of the samples. The median urinary concentrations of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine were 98.9, 4.02, and 5.53 ng/mL. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) were well correlated with anatabine (r2 = 0.714) and anabasine (r2 = 0.760). TNE was most highly correlated with nornicotine, which is also a metabolite of nicotine. Urine samples from a subset of subjects (n = 110) were analyzed for the presence of glucuronide conjugates by quantifying any increase in anatabine and anabasine concentrations after β-glucuronidase treatment. The median ratio of the glucuronidated to free anatabine was 0.74 (range, 0.1 to 10.9), and the median ratio of glucuronidated to free anabasine was 0.3 (range, 0.1 to 2.9). To our knowledge, this is the largest population of smokers for whom the urinary concentrations of these three tobacco alkaloids has been reported.",
author = "{Von Weymarn}, {Linda B.} and Thomson, {Nicole M.} and Donny, {Eric C.} and Hatsukami, {Dorothy K.} and Murphy, {Sharon E.}",
year = "2016",
month = "3",
day = "21",
doi = "10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00521",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "390--397",
journal = "Chemical Research in Toxicology",
issn = "0893-228X",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Quantitation of the Minor Tobacco Alkaloids Nornicotine, Anatabine, and Anabasine in Smokers' Urine by High Throughput Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

AU - Von Weymarn, Linda B.

AU - Thomson, Nicole M.

AU - Donny, Eric C.

AU - Hatsukami, Dorothy K.

AU - Murphy, Sharon E.

PY - 2016/3/21

Y1 - 2016/3/21

N2 - Nicotine is the most abundant alkaloid in tobacco accounting for 95% of the alkaloid content. There are also several minor tobacco alkaloids; among these are nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine. We developed and applied a 96 well plate-based capillary LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine in urine. The method was validated with regard to accuracy and precision. Anabasine was quantifiable to low levels with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.2 ng/mL even when nicotine, which is isobaric, is present at concentrations >2500-fold higher than anabasine. This attribute of the method is important since anatabine and anabasine in urine have been proposed as biomarkers of tobacco use for individuals using nicotine replacement therapies. In the present study, we analyzed the three minor tobacco alkaloids in urine from 827 smokers with a wide range of tobacco exposures. Nornicotine (LOQ 0.6 ng/mL) was detected in all samples, and anatabine (LOQ, 0.15 ng/mL) and anabasine were detected in 97.7% of the samples. The median urinary concentrations of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine were 98.9, 4.02, and 5.53 ng/mL. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) were well correlated with anatabine (r2 = 0.714) and anabasine (r2 = 0.760). TNE was most highly correlated with nornicotine, which is also a metabolite of nicotine. Urine samples from a subset of subjects (n = 110) were analyzed for the presence of glucuronide conjugates by quantifying any increase in anatabine and anabasine concentrations after β-glucuronidase treatment. The median ratio of the glucuronidated to free anatabine was 0.74 (range, 0.1 to 10.9), and the median ratio of glucuronidated to free anabasine was 0.3 (range, 0.1 to 2.9). To our knowledge, this is the largest population of smokers for whom the urinary concentrations of these three tobacco alkaloids has been reported.

AB - Nicotine is the most abundant alkaloid in tobacco accounting for 95% of the alkaloid content. There are also several minor tobacco alkaloids; among these are nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine. We developed and applied a 96 well plate-based capillary LC-tandem mass spectrometry method for the analysis of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine in urine. The method was validated with regard to accuracy and precision. Anabasine was quantifiable to low levels with a limit of quantitation (LOQ) of 0.2 ng/mL even when nicotine, which is isobaric, is present at concentrations >2500-fold higher than anabasine. This attribute of the method is important since anatabine and anabasine in urine have been proposed as biomarkers of tobacco use for individuals using nicotine replacement therapies. In the present study, we analyzed the three minor tobacco alkaloids in urine from 827 smokers with a wide range of tobacco exposures. Nornicotine (LOQ 0.6 ng/mL) was detected in all samples, and anatabine (LOQ, 0.15 ng/mL) and anabasine were detected in 97.7% of the samples. The median urinary concentrations of nornicotine, anatabine, and anabasine were 98.9, 4.02, and 5.53 ng/mL. Total nicotine equivalents (TNE) were well correlated with anatabine (r2 = 0.714) and anabasine (r2 = 0.760). TNE was most highly correlated with nornicotine, which is also a metabolite of nicotine. Urine samples from a subset of subjects (n = 110) were analyzed for the presence of glucuronide conjugates by quantifying any increase in anatabine and anabasine concentrations after β-glucuronidase treatment. The median ratio of the glucuronidated to free anatabine was 0.74 (range, 0.1 to 10.9), and the median ratio of glucuronidated to free anabasine was 0.3 (range, 0.1 to 2.9). To our knowledge, this is the largest population of smokers for whom the urinary concentrations of these three tobacco alkaloids has been reported.

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U2 - 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00521

DO - 10.1021/acs.chemrestox.5b00521

M3 - Article

VL - 29

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EP - 397

JO - Chemical Research in Toxicology

JF - Chemical Research in Toxicology

SN - 0893-228X

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ER -