Quantitation of pyridylhydroxybutyl-DNA adducts in liver and lung of F-344 rats treated with 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone and enantiomers of its metabolite 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol

Pramod Upadhyaya, Stephen Kalscheuer, J. Bradley Hochalter, Peter W. Villalta, Stephen S. Hecht

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31 Scopus citations

Abstract

The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1- butanone (NNK) is a potent pulmonary carcinogen in rats and is believed to be one cause of lung cancer in smokers. NNK is metabolized to 4-(methylnitrosamino) -1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), which is also a strong lung carcinogen in rats and has a chiral center at its 1-carbon. Previous studies have demonstrated that cytochrome P450-catalyzed α-hydroxylation of NNK in the lung leading to the formation of methyl and pyridyloxobutyl (POB)-DNA adducts is critical for its carcinogenicity. α-Hydroxylation of NNAL would similarly produce pyridylhydroxybutyl (PHB)-DNA adducts, but these have not been previously investigated in vivo. POB- and PHB-DNA adduct levels can indicate the amounts of pyridyloxobutylating and pyridylhydroxybutylating agents present in tissues of NNK- or NNAL-treated rats at any given point. Therefore, in this study, we developed a sensitive and quantitative liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry-selected reaction monitoring method to determine levels of the PHB-DNA adducts O6-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4- hydroxybut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine (O6-PHB-dGuo, 10b), O 2-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl]thymidine (O2-PHB-dThd, 11b), and 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4-hydroxybut-1-yl]-2′-deoxyguanosine (7-PHB-dGuo, 12b), the latter as the corresponding base 7-[4-(3-pyridyl)-4- hydroxybut-1-yl]-Gua (7-PHB-Gua, 14b) in DNA isolated from liver and lung of rats treated with 10 ppm NNK, (S)-NNAL, or (R)-NNAL in the drinking water for 20 weeks and sacrificed at 1, 2, 5, 10, 16, and 20 weeks. PHB-DNA adduct levels were higher in lung than in liver at each time point, consistent with previous studies of POB-DNA adducts in rats treated with NNK and NNAL in the drinking water. The results showed that NNK and (S)-NNAL behaved in a similar fashion, while (R)-NNAL was strikingly different. In the rats treated with NNK or (S)-NNAL, levels of each adduct at each time point were remarkably similar in lung, and levels of O2-PHB-dThd were generally greater than 7-PHB-Gua > O6-PHB-dGuo. The highest PHB-DNA adduct levels were found in lung and liver of rats treated with (R)-NNAL, suggesting that there are cytochrome P450s that efficiently catalyze the α-methyl hydroxylation of this compound. The results of this study provide further support for our hypothesis that (S)-NNAL is rapidly formed from NNK, sequestered at an unknown site in the lung, and then released and reoxidized to NNK with consequent DNA adduct formation resulting in lung carcinogenicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1468-1476
Number of pages9
JournalChemical research in toxicology
Volume21
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2008

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