Quantification of facial and smile esthetics

Vasiliki Koidou, Georgios Chatzopoulos, Stephen F. Rosenstiel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Statement of problem: Whether deviations in alignment discrepancy, width-to-length ratio, application of the golden proportion, or number of teeth revealed in smile affect attractiveness is yet unknown. Purpose: The purpose of this analytical study was to quantify dental and facial esthetics to determine whether individuals identified as having superior smiles display differences in alignment discrepancies (angulation between interpupillary and commissure line); width-to-length ratios of maxillary anterior teeth; application of the golden proportion (approximately 1.618:1); and number of teeth revealed in an animated smile when compared with an average population. Material and methods: An Internet search for “best smile” and “celebrity” identified 108 celebrities. Photographs showing smiles within 10 degrees of a frontal view were collected, while photographs of dental students were used for the control group. Alignment discrepancies, widths and lengths of the anterior teeth, and number of teeth revealed in an animated smile were measured with photo-editing software, and ratios were calculated. The groups were compared with repeated-measures ANOVA, the Mann-Whitney U test, and the Wilcoxon signed-rank test (α=.05). Results: Usable photographs were obtained for 90 celebrities (58 women, 32 men) and compared with photographs of 97 dental students (54 women, 43 men). Statistically significant differences were found for alignment discrepancies (celebrities 0.97, students 1.25, P=.034) and for the number of teeth displayed (P=.049); 22.2% of the celebrities revealed 12 teeth, versus 6.2% of the students. In both groups, significant differences from the golden ratio (1.618:1) for the width of the central incisor/lateral incisor right and left and for the width of the lateral incisor/canine right and left were observed through 95% confidence intervals. Sex and left-right were nonsignificant factors. Conclusions: Celebrities identified as having a best smile had smaller mean alignment discrepancies and revealed a greater number of teeth in an animated smile than dental students.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)270-277
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Prosthetic Dentistry
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2018

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article


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