Pulmonary Vein Atresia: Feasibility of Initial Recanalization Attempts with Subsequent Follow-up

Varun Aggarwal, Gary E. Stapleton, Lindsay F. Eilers, Srinath Gowda, Manish Bansal, Athar M. Qureshi, Melissa K. Webb, Asra Khan, Henri Justino

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Pulmonary vein atresia (PVA) may lead to pulmonary hypertension, cardiac failure, and death. Transcatheter or surgical treatments have rarely been offered to this population because of perceived poor outcomes. We describe single center outcomes of transcatheter management of PVA. Retrospective chart review of PVA patients who underwent cardiac catheterization at a single tertiary center. Sixty patients underwent catheterization for evaluation of PVA from 1995 to 2019. The age at the initial catheterization was 1.6 (0.7, 5.97) years. Two thirds of PVA patients had associated congenital heart disease (n=40). PVA recanalization was attempted in 34 patients, successful in 23/34 (68%) of the initial attempts. 3/23 (13%) underwent balloon angioplasty alone, and 20/23 (87%) received drug-eluting stents, with no procedural mortalities. 22/23 patients had transcatheter reinterventions during an interval of 2.1 (0.3, 5.1) years. Right ventricular systolic to aortic systolic pressure ratio (in biventricular patients) at the index catheterization was 0.45 (0.34, 0.68) in survivors versus 0.69 (0.54, 0.83) in those who died; P = 0.012 (n=45). The baseline right ventricular or pulmonary artery systolic to aortic systolic pressure ratio of ≥0.54 at the initial catheterization was predictive of mortality. We hereby demonstrate that transcatheter recanalization of PVA with placement of drug-eluting stents can be performed safely with acceptable success rate. With appropriate use of re-interventions for restenosis as indicated, PVA can be successfully palliated with good long-term patency and distal growth of the affected veins. Pulmonary hypertension is a risk factor for mortality in patients with PVA and biventricular circulation. Percutaneous recanalization of PVA is safe and feasible, and with placement of drug-eluting stents, carries a high acute success rate and results in growth of the distal pulmonary veins. However, close vigilance and reinterventions are required due to restenosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number101463
JournalCurrent Problems in Cardiology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2023

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