Provision of Smoking Cessation Resources in the Context of In-Person Shared Decision-Making for Lung Cancer Screening

Jolie Shen, Kristina Crothers, Erin K. Kross, Kaylee Petersen, Anne C. Melzer, Matthew Triplette

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


Background: Lung cancer screening (LCS) is effective at reducing mortality for high-risk smokers. Mortality benefits go beyond early cancer detection, because shared decision-making (SDM) may present a “teachable moment” to reinforce cessation and provide resources. Research Question: How well is smoking cessation performed during LCS SDM encounters, and what patient and provider characteristics are associated with smoking cessation assistance? Study Design and Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of current smokers participating in initial LCS SDM through a multisite program in Seattle, Washington, between 2015-2018. The LCS tracking database and electronic health record were reviewed for demographics, comorbidity data, and clinical encounter information. The primary outcome was provision of a smoking cessation resource, defined as referral to cessation resources, recommendation for nicotine replacement, or prescription for cessation medication. Participant and provider factor associations with the outcome were evaluated using χ2 testing and multivariable logistic regression. Results: Most of the 423 study participants were men (70%), with a median age of 61 (IQR, 58-66) years and median of 50 (41-72) pack-years of smoking. Only 26% of encounters had documentation consistent with SDM. Thirty-nine percent of participants received at least one smoking cessation resource, and only 5% received both counseling referrals and medication. In a multivariable model, the provision of any smoking cessation resource was half as likely in participants with higher levels of comorbidity (Charlson Index >2; OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.81), and half as likely if the ordering provider was not the patient's PCP or their specialist (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.32-0.96). Interpretation: Overall provision of smoking cessation resources was moderate during SDM encounters for LCS, and lower in patients with more comorbidities and when not performed by the patient's PCP or specialist. Interventions are needed to improve smoking cessation counseling and resource utilization at the time of LCS encounters.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)765-775
Number of pages11
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
FUNDING/SUPPORT: This work is supported by an Unrestricted grant from the American Thoracic Society and a Lung Cancer Discovery award from the American Lung Association .

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 American College of Chest Physicians


  • lung cancer
  • lung cancer screening
  • smoking
  • smoking cessation
  • tobacco abuse


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