Proton transfer ratio, lactate, and intracellular pH in acute cerebral ischemia

Kimmo T. Jokivarsi, Heidi I. Gröhn, Olli H. Gröhn, Risto A. Kauppinen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

100 Scopus citations


The amide proton transfer ratio (APTR) from the asymmetry of the Z-spectrum was determined in rat brain tissue during and after unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). Cerebral lactate (Lac) as determined by 1H NMR spectroscopy, water diffusion, and T1p were quantified as well. Lac concentrations were used to estimate intracellular pH (pHi) in the brain during the MCA occlusion. A decrease in APTR during occlusion indicated acidification from 7.1 to 6.79 ± 0.19 (a drop by 0.3 ± 0.2 pH units), whereas pHi computed from Lac concentration was 6.3 ± 0.2 (a drop by 0.8 ± 0.2 pH units). Despite the disagreement between the two methods in terms of the size of the change in the absolute pHi during ischemia, ΔAPTR and pHi (and Lac concentration) displayed a strong correlation during the MCAo. Diffusion and T1p indicated cytotoxic edema following MCA occlusion; however, APTR returned slowly toward the values determined in the contralateral hemisphere post-ischemia. These data argue that the APTR during ischemia is affected not only by pHi but by other physicochemical factors as well, and indicates different aspects of pathology in the post-ishemic brain compared to those that influence water diffusion and T1p.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)647-653
Number of pages7
JournalMagnetic resonance in medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2007


  • Brain
  • Intracellular ph
  • Ischemia
  • Lactate
  • Proton transfer ratio

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